LTC4400-1/2 Datasheet by Analog Devices Inc.

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LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
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FEATURES
DESCRIPTIO
U
APPLICATIO S
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TYPICAL APPLICATIO
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RF Power Controllers with
450kHz Loop BW and
45dB Dynamic Range
The LTC
®
4400-1 is a SOT-23 RF power controller for fast
turn-on RF power amplifiers operating in the 300MHz to
2.7GHz range. Examples include the Hitachi PF08109B,
PF08122B, PF08123B, PF08107B and RF Micro Devices
RF3108. For slow turn-on RF power amplifiers refer to the
LTC4401-1/LTC4401-2.
RF power is controlled by driving the RF amplifier power
control pin and sensing the resultant RF output power via
a directional coupler or capacitive tap. The RF input
voltage is peak detected using an on-chip Schottky diode.
This detected voltage is compared to the DAC voltage at
the PCTL pin to control the output power. The RF power
amplifier is protected against high power control pin
voltages.
Internal and external offsets are cancelled over tempera-
ture by an autozero control loop, allowing accurate low
power programming. The shutdown feature disables the
part and reduces the supply current to <10µA.
A dual control channel version (LTC4400-2) is also
available in an 8-pin MSOP package.
RF Power Amplifier Control in ThinSOT
TM
Package
Internal Schottky Diode Detector with >45dB Range
Wide Input Frequency Range:
300MHz to 2.7GHz (LTC4400-1)
300MHz to 2GHz (LTC4400-2)
Autozero Loop Cancels Offset Errors and
Temperature Dependent Offsets
Wide V
CC
Range: 2.7V to 6V
Automatic Bandwidth Control Improves Low Power
Ramp Response
Allows Direct Connection to Battery
RF Output Power Set by External DAC
Internal Frequency Compensation
Rail-to-Rail Power Control Output
Power Control Signal Overvoltage Protection
Low Operating Current: 1mA
Low Shutdown Current: 10µA
Two Pole PCTL Input Filtering
Low Profile (1mm) ThinSOT (LTC4400-1) and
8-Pin MSOP (LTC4400-2) Packages
, LTC and LT are registered trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation.
LTC4400-1 Dual Band Cellular Telephone Transmitter
GSM/GPRS Cellular Telephones
PCS Devices
Wireless Data Modems
U.S. TDMA Cellular Phones
V
CC
SHDN
PCTL
1
5
2
6
4
3
RF
V
PCA
GND
LTC4400-1
SHDN
DAC
1.8GHz
INPUT
900MHz
INPUT
4400 TA01
0.1µF0.4pF
50
Li-Ion
V
PC
900MHz
OUTPUT
1.8GHz
OUTPUT
PA MODULE
BAND
SELECT
ThinSOT is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation.
RF INPUT POWER (dBm)
10
PCTL REFERENCED DETECTOR
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
100
1000
10000
26 22–18 –14 –10 6 2 2 6 10 14 18
1
4400 TA04
T
A
= 25°C
V
CC
= 3.6V
900MHz 1800MHz
LTC4400-1 Detector Characteristics at
900MHz and 1800MHz
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ABSOLUTE AXI U RATI GS
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V
CC
to GND ..............................................0.3V to 6.5V
V
PCA/B
Voltage to GND ............................0.3V to 3.2V
PCTL Voltage to GND ................. –0.3V to (V
CC
+ 0.3V)
RF Voltage to GND............................ (V
CC
– 2.6V) to 7V
BSEL, SHDN Voltage to GND ...... –0.3V to (V
CC
+ 0.3V)
The denotes specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VCC = 3.6V, SHDN = HI, unless otherwise noted.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
PACKAGE/ORDER I FOR ATIO
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VPCA/B
.................................................................. 10mA
Operating Temperature Range (Note 2) .. 40°C to 85°C
Storage Temperature Range ................ 65°C to 150°C
Maximum Junction Temperature ........................ 125°C
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec)................ 300°C
(Note 1)
ORDER PART
NUMBER
S6 PART MARKING
LTC4400-1ES6
LTWZ
T
JMAX
= 125°C, θ
JA
= 230°C/W
Consult LTC Marketing for parts specified with wider operating temperature ranges.
1
2
3
4
V
CC
V
PCA
V
PCB
GND
8
7
6
5
RF
BSEL
SHDN
PCTL
TOP VIEW
MS8 PACKAGE
8-LEAD PLASTIC MSOP
ORDER PART
NUMBER
MS8 PART MARKING
LTC4400-2EMS8
LTXB
T
JMAX
= 125°C, θ
JA
= 250°C/W
RF 1
GND 2
PCTL 3
6 V
CC
5 VPCA
4 SHDN
TOP VIEW
S6 PACKAGE
6-LEAD PLASTIC TSOT-23
PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
V
CC
Operating Voltage 2.7 6 V
I
VCC
Shutdown Current SHDN = 0V 10 20 µA
I
VCC
Operating Current SHDN = HI, I
VPCA/B
= 0mA 1.2 1.9 mA
V
PCA/B
V
OL
R
LOAD
= 400, Enabled 0 0.05 V
V
PCA/B
Dropout Voltage I
LOAD
= 6mA, V
CC
= 2.7V V
CC
– 0.25 V
V
PCA/B
Voltage Clamp PCTL = 1V 2.7 2.9 3.1 V
V
PCA/B
Output Current V
PCA/B
= 2.4V, V
CC
= 3V 710 mA
V
PCA/B
Enable Time SHDN = V
CC
(Note 5) 9 10.2 µs
V
PCA/B
Bandwidth C
LOAD
= 100pF, R
LOAD
= 400 (Note 8) PCTL < 80mV 350 450 560 kHz
PCTL > 160mV 230 kHz
V
PCA/B
Load Capacitance 100 pF
V
PCA/B
Slew Rate V
PCTL
= 2V Step, C
LOAD
= 100pF, 1.8 2.5 3 V/µs
R
LOAD
= 400 (Note 3)
V
PCA/B
Droop 1µV/ms
V
PCA/B
Start Voltage Open Loop (Note 9) 270 450 550 mV
BSEL, SHDN Input Threshold V
CC
= 2.7V to 6V 0.35 1.4 V
BSEL, SHDN Input Current BSEL = SHDN = 3.6V 16 24 36 µA
PCTL Input Voltage Range (Note 7) 0 2.4 V
PCTL Input Resistance 60 90 120 k
PCTL Input Filter 270 kHz
Autozero Range (Note 4) 400 mV
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TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
UW
LTC4400-1 Detector Characteristics
at 900MHz LTC4400-1 Detector Characteristics
at 1800MHz
Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which the life
of a device may be impaired.
Note 2: Specifications over the –40°C to 85°C operating temperature range
are assured by design, characterization and correlation with statistical
process controls.
Note 3: Slew rate is measured open loop. The slew time at V
PCA/B
is
measured between 1V and 2V.
Note 4: Maximum DAC zero-scale offset voltage that can be applied to PCTL.
Note 5: This is the time from SHDN rising edge 50% switch point to
V
PCA
= 0.25V.
Note 6: Guaranteed by design. This parameter is not production tested.
Note 7: Includes maximum DAC offset voltage and maximum control
voltage.
Note 8: Bandwidth is calculated using the 10% to 90% rise time:
BW = 0.35/rise time
Note 9: Measured 12µs after SHDN = HI.
RF INPUT POWER (dBm)
10
PCTL REFERENCED DETECTOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
100
1000
10000
–28 –10 2 8
1–22 –4 14–16
4401 G01
75°C
25°C
–30°C
RF INPUT POWER (dBm)
10
PCTL REFERENCED DETECTOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
100
1000
10000
–26 14 –8 –2 4 10 16
1–20
4401 G02
75°C
25°C
–30°C
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
RF Input Frequency Range LTC4400-1(Note 6) 300 2700 MHz
LTC4400-2(Note 6) 300 2000 MHz
RF Input Power Range RF Frequency = 900MHz (Note 6) 28 18 dBm
(LTC4400-1) RF Frequency = 1800MHz (Note 6) 26 18 dBm
RF Frequency = 2400MHz (Note 6) 24 16 dBm
RF Frequency = 2700MHz (Note 6) 22 16 dBm
RF Input Power Range RF Frequency = 900MHz (Note 6) 28 18 dBm
(LTC4400-2) RF Frequency = 2000MHz (Note 6) 26 18 dBm
RF Input Resistance Referenced to V
CC
150 250 350
The denotes specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VCC = 3.6V, SHDN = HI, unless otherwise noted.
LTC4400-1 Detector Characteristics
at 2400MHz
RF INPUT POWER (dBm)
10
PCTL REFERENCED DETECTOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
100
1000
10000
–24 12 –8 –4 40 8 12 16
120 –16
4401 G03
75°C
25°C
–30°C
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LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
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RF (Pins 1/8): RF Feedback Voltage. This input is referenced
to V
CC
. The frequency range is 300MHz to 2700MHz for the
LTC4400-1 and 300MHz to 2000MHz for the LTC4400-2.
This pin has an internal 250 termination, an internal
Schottky diode detector and peak detector capacitor.
GND (Pins 2/4): System Ground.
PCTL (Pins 3/5): Analog Input. The external power control
DAC drives this input. The amplifier servos the RF power
until the RF detected signal equals the DAC signal. The
input impedance is typically 90k.
V
PCB
(Pin 3): (LTC4400-2 Only) Power Control Voltage
Output. This pin drives an external RF power amplifier
power control pin. The maximum load capacitance is
100pF.
SHDN (Pins 4/6): Shutdown Input. A logic low on the SHDN
pin places the part in shutdown mode. A logic high places
the part in enable mode. SHDN has an internal 150k pull-
down resistor to ensure that the part is in shutdown when
the drivers are in a three-state condition.
V
PCA
(Pins 5/2): Power Control Voltage Output. This pin
drives an external RF power amplifier power control pin.
The maximum load capacitance is 100pF.
V
CC
(Pins 6/1): Input Supply Voltage, 2.7V to 6V. V
CC
should be bypassed with 0.1µF and 100pF ceramic capaci-
tors. Used as return for RF 250 termination.
BSEL (Pin 7): (LTC4400-2 Only) Selects V
PCA
when Low
and V
PCB
when High. This input has an internal 150k
resistor to ground.
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(LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2)
LTC4400-1 Detector Characteristics
at 2700MHz
RF INPUT POWER (dBm)
10
PCTL REFERENCED DETECTOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
100
1000
10000
–22 –10 –6 –2 621014
1–18 –14
4401 G04
75°C
25°C
–30°C
TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
UW
RF INPUT POWER (dBm)
10
PCTL REFERENCED DETECTOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
100
1000
10000
–28 –10 2 8
1–22 –4 14–16
4400 G05
75°C
25°C
–30°C
RF INPUT POWER (dBm)
10
PCTL REFERENCED DETECTOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
100
1000
10000
–26 14 –8 –2 4 10 16
1–20
4400 G06
75°C
25°C
–30°C
LTC4400-2 Detector Characteristics
at 900MHz LTC4400-2 Detector Characteristics
at 1800MHz
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LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
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+
RF DET
+
GM
80mV
270kHz
FILTER
+
30k
22k 51k
30k
250
28pF
33pF
100
4400-1 BD
12
150k
60µA60µA
RF 1
V
CC
Li-Ion
6
5V
PCA
GND
PCTL
3
RF PARF IN
AZ
AUTOZERO
TXENB
+
+
CONTROL
4
SHDN
10µs
DELAY
NOTE: THE DIRECTIONAL COUPLER SHOWN IN THIS FIGURE MAY BE REPLACED
WITH A COUPLING CAPACITOR AND RESISTOR AS DESCRIBED IN APPLICATION
NOTE 91 “LOW COST COUPLING METHODS FOR RF POWER DETECTORS REPLACE
DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS”
V
REF
50
2
68
V
REF
GAIN
COMPRESSION
CLAMP
C
C
BUFFER
38k
30k
33.4k 6k
30k
+
+
TXENB
LTC4400-1
VBG
BLOCK DIAGRA
W
(LTC4400-1)
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LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
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BLOCK DIAGRA
W
+
RF DET
+
GM
80mV
270kHz
FILTER
+
30k
22k 51k
30k
250
28pF
100
4400-2 BD
12
150k
60µA60µA
RF 8
VCC
Li-Ion
1
VPCA
VPCA
GND
PCTL
5
BSEL
7
RF PA RF PA900MHz
AZ
AUTOZERO
TXENB
+
+
100
12
CONTROL
150k
6
SHDN
10µs
DELAY
VREF
1.8GHz/1.9GHz
4
VREF
GAIN
COMPRESSION
CLAMP
MUX1 MUX2
CC
38k
30k
33.4k 6k
30k
+
+
TXENB
LTC4400-2
VBG
DIPLEXER
3VPCB
2
BUF A
BUF B
500.4pF
(LTC4400-2)
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APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
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Operation
The LTC4400-X RF power control amplifier integrates
several functions to provide RF power control over fre-
quencies ranging from 300MHz to 2.7GHz. This product is
well suited to control RF power amplifiers that exhibit fast
turn-on times. The device also prevents damage to the RF
power amplifier due to overvoltage conditions. These
functions include an internally compensated power con-
trol amplifier to control the RF output power, an autozero
section to cancel internal and external voltage offsets, an
RF Schottky diode peak detector and amplifier to convert
the RF feedback signal to DC, a V
PCA/B
overvoltage clamp,
compression and a bandgap reference.
Band Selection
The LTC4400-2 is designed to drive two separate power
control lines. The BSEL pin will select V
PCA
when low and
V
PCB
when high. BSEL must be established prior to SHDN
being asserted high.
Control Amplifier
The control amplifier supplies the power control voltage to
the RF power amplifier. A portion (typically –19dB for low
frequencies and –14dB for high frequencies) of the RF
output voltage is sampled, via a directional coupler or
capacitive tap, to close the gain control loop. When a DAC
voltage is applied to PCTL, the amplifier quickly servos
V
PCA/B
positive until the detected feedback voltage applied
to the RF pin matches the voltage at PCTL. This feedback
loop provides accurate RF power control. V
PCA/B
is capable
of driving a 6mA load current and 100pF load capacitor.
Control Amplifier Compression
The gain compression breakpoints are at PCTL = 80mV
and PCTL = 160mV. Above 160mV the gain does not
change. The compression changes the feedback attenua-
tion these by reducing the loop gain.
RF Detector
The internal RF Schottky diode peak detector and ampli-
fier converts the RF feedback
voltage
to a low frequency
voltage
. This
voltage
is compared to the DAC
voltage
at
the PCTL pin by the control amplifier to close the RF
power control loop. The RF pin input resistance is typi-
cally 250 and the frequency range of this pin is 300MHz
to 2700MHz for the LTC4400-1 and 300MHz to 2000MHz
for the LTC4400-2. The detector demonstrates excel
lent
efficiency over a wide range of input power. The Schottky
detector is biased at about 60µA and drives an on-chip
peak detector capacitor of 28pF.
Autozero
An autozero system is included to improve power pro-
gramming accuracy over temperature. This section can-
cels internal offsets associated with the Schottky diode
detector and control amplifier. External offsets associated
with the DAC driving the PCTL pin are also cancelled.
Offset drift due to temperature is cancelled between each
burst. The maximum offset voltage allowed at the DAC
output is limited to 400mV. Autozeroing is performed
during a 10µs period after SHDN is asserted high. An
internal timer enables the
V
PCA/B
output after 10µs. The
autozero capacitors are held and the
V
PCA/B
pin is con-
nected to the control amplifier output. The hold droop
voltage of typically <1µV/ms provides for accurate offset
cancella
tion. The part should be shut down between
bursts or after multiple consecutive bursts.
Filter
There is a 270kHz two pole filter included in the PCTL path
to remove DAC noise.
Protection Features
The RF power amplifier control voltage pin is overvoltage
protected. The VPCA/B overvoltage clamp regulates
VPCA/B to 2.9V when the gain and PCTL input combination
attempts to exceed this voltage.
Modes of Operation
Shutdown: The part is in shutdown mode when SHDN is
low. V
PCA/B
is held at ground and the power supply current
is typically 10µA.
Enable: When SHDN is asserted high the part will auto-
matically calibrate out all offsets. This takes <10µs and is
controlled by an internal delay circuit. After 10µs V
PCA/B
will step up to the starting voltage of 450mV. The user can
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LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
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then apply the ramp signal. The user should wait 12µs after
SHDN has been asserted high before applying the ramp.
The DAC should be settled 2µs after asserting SHDN high.
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
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General Layout Considerations
The LTC4400-X should be placed near the coupling com-
ponents. The feedback signal line to the RF pin should be
a 50 transmission line with optional termination or a
short line.
External Termination
The LTC4400-X has an internal 250 termination resistor
at the RF pin. If a directional coupler is used, it is recom-
mended that an external 68 termination resistor be
connected between the RF coupling capacitor (33pF), and
ground at the side connected to the directional coupler.
Termination components should be placed adjacent to the
LTC4400-X. An alternative method couples RF from the
power amplifier to the power controller through a 0.4pF
±0.05pF capacitor and 50 series resistor, completely
eliminating the directional coupler.
Power Ramp Profiles
The external voltage gain associated with the RF channel
can vary significantly between RF power amplifier types.
The LTC4400-X frequency compensation has been
optimized to be stable with several different power ampli-
fiers and manufacturers. This frequency compensation
generally defines the loop dynamics that impact the power/
time response and possibly (slow loops) the power ramp
sidebands. The LTC4400-X operates open loop until an RF
voltage appears at the RF pin, at which time the loop closes
and the output power follows the DAC profile. The RF
power amplifier will require a certain control voltage level
(threshold) before an RF output signal is produced. The
LTC4400-X V
PCA/B
output must quickly rise to this thresh-
old voltage in order to meet the power/time profile. To
reduce this time, the LTC4400-X starts at 450mV. How-
ever, at very low power levels the PCTL input signal is
small, and the V
PCA/B
output may take several microsec-
onds to reach the RF power amplifier threshold voltage. To
reduce this time, it may be necessary to apply a positive
pulse at the start of the ramp to quickly bring the V
PCA/B
output to the threshold voltage. This can generally be
achieved with DAC programming. The magnitude of the
pulse is dependent on the RF amplifier characteristics.
Power ramp sidebands and power/time are also a factor
when ramping to zero power. When the power is ramped
down the loop will eventually open at power levels below
the LTC4400-X detector threshold. The LTC4400-X will
then go open loop and the output voltage at V
PCA/B
will
stop falling. If this voltage is high enough to produce RF
output power, the power/time or power ramp sidebands
may not meet specification. This problem can be avoided
by starting the DAC ramp from 100mV (Figure 1). At the
end of the cycle, the DAC can be ramped down to 0mV.
This applies a negative signal to the LTC4400-X thereby
ensuring that the V
PCA/B
output will ramp to 0V. The
100mV ramp step must be applied <2µs after SHDN is
asserted high to allow the autozero to cancel the step. Slow
DAC rise times will extend this time by the additional RC
time constants which may require that the DAC is enabled
and settled prior to SHDN asserted high.
LTC4400-X Timing Diagram
10µs28µs
2µs28µs
543µs
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
VSTART
SHDN
VPCA/B
PCTL
4400 TA02
T1: LTC4400-X COMES OUT OF SHUTDOWN 12µs PRIOR TO BURST
T2: INTERNAL TIMER COMPLETES AUTOZERO CORRECTION, <10µs
T3: BASEBAND CONTROLLER STARTS RF POWER RAMP UP AT 12µs AFTER
SHDN IS ASSERTED HIGH
T4: BASEBAND CONTROLLER COMPLETES RAMP UP
T5: BASEBAND CONTROLLER STARTS RF POWER RAMP DOWN AT END OF BURST
T6: LTC4400-X RETURNS TO SHUTDOWN MODE BETWEEN BURSTS
T7: BSEL CHANGE PRIOR TO SHDN, 0ns TYPICAL (LTC4400-2 ONLY)
T8: BSEL CHANGE AFTER TO SHDN, 0ns TYPICAL (LTC4400-2 ONLY)
BSEL
T7 T8
(LTC4400-2 ONLY)
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APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
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Demo Board
The LTC4400-X demo board is available upon request. The
demo board has a 900MHz and an 1800MHz RF channel
controlled by the LTC4400-X. Timing signals for SHDN are
generated on the board using a 13MHz crystal reference.
The PCTL power control pin is driven by a 10-bit DAC and
the DAC profile can be loaded via a serial port. The serial
port data is stored in a flash memory which is capable of
storing eight ramp profiles. The board is supplied preloaded
with four GSM power profiles and four DCS power profiles
covering the entire power range. External timing signals
can be used in place of the internal crystal controlled
timing. A variety of RF power amplifiers as well as ramp
generation software are available.
LTC4400-X Control Loop Stability
The LTC4400-X provides a stable control loop for several
RF power amplifier models from different manufacturers
over a wide range of frequencies, output power levels and
V
SWR
conditions. However, there are several factors that
can improve or degrade loop frequency stability.
1) The additional voltage gain supplied by the RF power
amplifier increases the loop gain raising poles normally
below the 0dB axis. The extra voltage gain can vary
significantly over input/output power ranges, frequency,
power supply, temperature and manufacturer. RF power
amplifier gain control transfer functions are often not
available and must be generated by the user. Loop oscil-
lations are most likely to occur in the midpower range
where the external voltage gain associated with the RF
power amplifier typically peaks. It is useful to measure the
oscillation or ringing frequency to determine whether it
corresponds to the expected loop bandwidth and thus is
due to high gain bandwidth.
2) Loop voltage losses supplied by the RF feedback
coupler will improve phase margin. The larger the loss, the
more stable the loop will become. However, larger losses
reduce the RF signal to the LTC4400-X and detector
performance may be degraded at low power levels. (See
RF Detector Characteristics.)
3) Additional poles within the loop due to filtering or the
turn-on response of the RF power amplifier can degrade
the phase margin if these pole frequencies are near the
effective loop bandwidth frequency. Generally loops using
RF power amplifiers with fast turn-on times have more
phase margin. Extra filtering below 16MHz should never
be placed within the control loop, as this will only degrade
phase margin.
4) Control loop instability can also be due to open-loop
issues. RF power amplifiers should first be characterized
in an open-loop configuration to ensure self oscillation is
not present. Self-oscillation is often related to poor power
supply decoupling, ground loops, coupling due to poor
layout and extreme V
SWR
conditions. The oscillation fre-
quency is generally in the 100kHz to 10MHz range. Power
supply related oscillation suppression requires large value
ceramic decoupling capacitors placed close to the RF
power amp supply pins. The range of decoupling capacitor
values is typically 1nF to 3.3µF.
5) Poor layout techniques associated with the RF coupling
components may result in high frequency signals bypass-
ing the coupler. This could result in stability problems due
to the reduction in the coupler loss.
Figure 1. LTC4400-X Ramp Timing
START
CODE
100mV
10
–10
–20
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70
–80
12µs, ALLOWS TIME FOR DAC
AND AUTOZERO TO SETTLE
SHDN
0
543 553 561 571
4400 F01
28 –18 –10 0 TIME (µs)
RFOUT (dBc)DAC VOLTAGE
START
PULSE
ZERO
CODE
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LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
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Determining External Loop Gain and Bandwidth
The external loop voltage gain contributed by the RF chan-
nel and RF feedback coupling network should be mea-
sured in a closed-loop configuration. A voltage step is
applied to PCTL and the change in V
PCA/B
is measured. The
detected voltage is K • PCTL, where K is the internal gain
between PCTL and the RF pin, and the external voltage gain
contributed by the RF power amplifier and RF feedback
coupling network is K • V
PCTL
/V
VPC
. Measuring voltage
gain in the closed-loop configuration accounts for the
nonlinear detector gain that is dependent on RF input
voltage and frequency.
The LTC4400-X unity gain bandwidth specified in the data
sheet assumes that the net voltage gain contributed by the
RF power amplifier and RF feedback coupler is unity. The
bandwidth is calculated by measuring the rise time be-
tween 10% and 90% of the voltage change at V
PCA/B
for a
small step in voltage applied to PCTL.
BW1 = 0.35/rise time
The LTC4400-X control amplifier unity gain bandwidth
(BW1) is typically 450kHz below a PCTL voltage of 80mV.
For PCTL voltages <80mV, the RF detected voltage is
0.6PCTL. For PCTL voltages >160mV, RF detected voltage
is 1.22PCTL – 0.1. This change in gain is due to an internal
compression circuit designed to extend the detector range.
For example, to determine the external RF channel loop
voltage gain with the loop closed, apply a 100mV step to
PCTL from 300mV to 400mV. V
PCA/B
will increase to
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
WUUU
supply enough feedback voltage to the RF pin to cancel
this 100mV step which would be the required detected
voltage step of 122mV. V
PCA/B
changed from 1.5V to
1.561V to create the RF output power change required.
The net external voltage gain contributed by the RF power
amplifier and RF feedback coupling network can be calcu-
lated by dividing the 122mV change at the RF pin by the
61mV change at the V
PCA/B
pin. The net external voltage
gain would then be approximately 2. The loop bandwidth
extends to 2 • BW1. If BW1 is 230kHz, the loop bandwidth
increases to approximately 460kHz. The phase margin can
be determined from Figures 2 and 3. Repeat the above
voltage gain measurement over the full power and fre-
quency range.
External pole frequencies within the loop will further
reduce phase margin. The phase margin degradation, due
to external and internal pole combinations, is difficult to
determine since complex poles are present. Gain peaking
may occur, resulting in higher bandwidth and lower phase
margin than predicted from the open-loop Bode plot. A
low frequency AC SPICE model of the LTC4400-X power
controller is included to better determine pole and zero
interactions. The user can apply external gains and poles
to determine bandwidth and phase margin. DC, transient
and RF information cannot be extracted from the present
model. The model is suitable for external gain evaluations
up to 6×. The 270kHz PCTL input filter limits the band-
width, therefore, use the RF input as demonstrated in the
model. Gain compression is not modeled.
Figure 2. Measured Open-Loop Gain and Phase, PCTL < 80mV Figure 3. Measured Open-Loop Gain and Phase, PCTL > 160mV
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100
–20
VOLTAGE GAIN (dB)
PHASE (DEG)
–10
0
20
10
40
30
1k 10k 100k 1M 10M
4400 F02
–30
–40
–50
–60
60
50
80
70
–20
0
20
60
40
100
80
–40
–60
–80
–100
–120
140
120
160
PHASE
GAIN
R
LOAD
= 2k
C
LOAD
= 33pF
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100
–20
VOLTAGE GAIN (dB)
PHASE (DEG)
–10
0
20
10
40
30
1k 10k 100k 1M 10M
4400 F03
–30
–40
–50
–60
60
50
80
70
–20
0
20
60
40
100
80
–40
–60
–80
–100
140
120
180
160
PHASE
R
LOAD
= 2k
C
LOAD
= 33pF
GAIN
L7LJIJMW
11
LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
sn4400 4400fas
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
WUUU
This model (Figure 6) is being supplied to LTC users as an
aid to circuit designs. While the model reflects reasonably
close similarity to corresponding devices in low frequency
AC performance terms, its use is not suggested as a
replacement for breadboarding. Simulation should be
used as a forerunner or a supplement to traditional lab
testing.
Users should note very carefully the following factors
regarding this model: Model performance in general will
reflect typical baseline specs for a given device, and
certain aspects of performance may not be modeled fully.
While reasonable care has been taken in the preparation,
we cannot be responsible for correct application on any
and all computer systems. Model users are hereby notified
that these models are supplied “as is”, with no direct or
implied responsibility on the part of LTC for their operation
within a customer circuit or system. Further, Linear Tech-
nology Corporation reserves the right to change these
models without prior notice.
In all cases, the current data sheet information is your final
design guideline, and is the only performance guarantee.
For further technical information, refer to individual device
data sheets. Your feedback and suggestions on this model
is appreciated.
Figure 4. Closed-Loop Block Diagram Figure 5. SPICE Model Open-Loop Gain and Phase
Characteristics from RF to VPCA, PCTL < 80mV
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100
–20
VOLTAGE GAIN (dB)
PHASE (DEG)
–10
0
20
10
40
30
1k 10k 100k 1M 10M
4400 F05
–30
–40
–50
–60
60
50
80
70
–20
0
20
60
40
100
80
–40
–60
–80
–100
140
120
180
160
PHASE
R
LOAD
= 2k
C
LOAD
= 33pF
GAIN
G1PCTL
IFB
G2
H1 RF
4400 F04
H2
VPC
LTC4400-X
RF DETECTOR
CONTROL
AMPLIFER RF POWER AMP
CONTROLLED
RF OUTPUT
POWER
RF COUPLER
14dB to 20dB LOSS
+
Linear Technology Corporation hereby grants the users of
this model a nonexclusive, nontransferable license to use
this model under the following conditions:
The user agrees that this model is licensed from Linear
Technology and agrees that the model may be used,
loaned, given away or included in other model libraries as
long as this notice and the model in its entirety and
unchanged is included. No right to make derivative works
or modifications to the model is granted hereby. All such
rights are reserved.
This model is provided as is. Linear Technology makes
no warranty, either expressed or implied about the suit-
ability or fitness of this model for any particular purpose.
In no event will Linear Technology be liable for special,
collateral, incidental or consequential damages in con-
nection with or arising out of the use of this model. It
should be remembered that models are a simplification
of the actual circuit.
L7 LJEJW
12
LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
sn4400 4400fas
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
WUUU
*LTC4400-X Low Frequency AC Spice Model*
*July 11, 2001
*Main Network Description
GGIN1 ND3 0 ND2 IFB 86E-6
GGXFB IFB 0 0 ND12 33E-6
GGX5 ND11 0 0 ND10 1E-6
GGX6 ND12 0 0 ND11 1E-6
GGX1 ND4 0 0 ND3 1E-6
GGX2 ND6 0 0 ND4 1E-6
GGX3 ND7 0 0 ND6 1E-6
GGX4 ND8 0 0 ND7 1E-6
EEX1 ND9 0 0 ND8 2
CCC1 ND3 0 44E-12
CCPCTL2 ND2 0 7E-12
CCPCTL1 ND1 0 13E-12
CCLINT VPCA 0 5E-12
CCLOAD VPCA 0 33E-12
CCFB1 IFB 0 2.4E-12
CCX5 ND11 0 16E-15
CCX6 ND12 0 1.2E-15
CCP ND10 0 28E-12
CCX2 ND6 0 8E-15
CCX3 ND7 0 32E-15
LLX1 ND5 0 80E-3
RR01 ND3 0 20E6
RRFILT ND2 ND1 44E3
RRPCTL1 PCTL ND1 51E3
RRPCTL2 ND1 0 38E3
RR9 VPCA ND9 50
RRLOAD VPCA 0 2E3
RRFB1 IFB 0 22E3
RRT RF 0 250
RRX5 ND11 0 1E6
RRX6 ND12 0 1E6
RRSDRF ND10 500
RRX1 ND4 ND5 1E6
RRX2 ND6 0 1E6
RRX3 ND7 0 1E6
RRX4 ND8 0 1E6
**Closed-loop feedback, comment-out VPCTLO, VRF, Adjust EFB gain to reflect external gain, currently set at 3X**
*EFB RF 0 VPCA VIN 3
*VIN VIN 0 DC 0 AC 1
*VPCTLO PCTL 0 DC 0
**Open-loop connections, comment-out EFB, VIN and VPCTLO******
VPCTLO PCTL 0 DC 0
VRF RF 0 DC 0 AC 1
******Add AC statement and print statement as required***
.AC DEC 50 100 1E7
*****for PSPICE only*****
.OP
.PROBE
*************************
.END
Figure 6. LTC4400-X Low Frequency AC SPICE Model
L7LJIJMW
13
LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
sn4400 4400fas
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
WUUU
Figure 7. LTC4400-X Low Frequency AC Model
RO1
20E6
ND3
ND2ND1 GIN1
86E-6
IFB
GX1
1E-6
GX2
1E-6
GX3
1E-6
GX4
1E-6
CC1
44E-12
R
PCTL2
38E3
R
PCTL1
51E3
R
FILT
44E3
RX1
1E6
ND4
RX2
1E6
ND6
ND5 RX3
1E6
ND7
CX3
32E-15
RX4
1E6
R
LOAD
2E3
ND8
+
CX2
8E-15
+
RX5
1E6
ND11
ND10
CX5
16E-15
+
RSD
500
RT
250
CP
28E-12
RX6
1E6
ND12
CX6
1.2E-15
+
+
+
4400 F07
+
+
+
RFB1
22E3
GM GM GM GM GM
GX5
1E-6
GM
GX6
1E-6
GM
GXFB
33E-6
GM
EX1
V
AMP
PCTL
RF
V
PCA
C
PCTL2
7E-12
C
PCTL1
13E-12
CFB1
2.4E-12 2
ND9
ND8
2X BUFFER
C
LINT
5E-12 C
LOAD
33E-12
R9
50
LX1
80E-3
L7 LJEJW
14
LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
sn4400 4400fas
U
PACKAGE DESCRIPTIO
S6 Package
6-Lead Plastic TSOT-23
(Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1636)
1.50 – 1.75
(NOTE 4)
2.80 BSC
0.30 – 0.45
6 PLCS (NOTE 3)
DATUM ‘A’
0.09 – 0.20
(NOTE 3)
S6 TSOT-23 0302
2.90 BSC
(NOTE 4)
0.95 BSC
1.90 BSC
0.80 – 0.90
1.00 MAX 0.01 – 0.10
0.20 BSC
0.30 – 0.50 REF
PIN ONE ID
NOTE:
1. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS
2. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE
3. DIMENSIONS ARE INCLUSIVE OF PLATING
4. DIMENSIONS ARE EXCLUSIVE OF MOLD FLASH AND METAL BURR
5. MOLD FLASH SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.254mm
6. JEDEC PACKAGE REFERENCE IS MO-193
3.85 MAX
0.62
MAX 0.95
REF
RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD LAYOUT
PER IPC CALCULATOR
1.4 MIN
2.62 REF
1.22 REF
L7LJIJMW osmium TI] I] I] I]: fl 5 327345
15
LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
sn4400 4400fas
U
PACKAGE DESCRIPTIO
MS8 Package
8-Lead Plastic MSOP
(Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1660)
Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no represen-
tation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
MSOP (MS8) 0802
0.53 ± 0.015
(.021 ± .006)
SEATING
PLANE
NOTE:
1. DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETER/(INCH)
2. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE
3. DIMENSION DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH, PROTRUSIONS OR GATE BURRS.
MOLD FLASH, PROTRUSIONS OR GATE BURRS SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.152mm (.006") PER SIDE
4. DIMENSION DOES NOT INCLUDE INTERLEAD FLASH OR PROTRUSIONS.
INTERLEAD FLASH OR PROTRUSIONS SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.152mm (.006") PER SIDE
5. LEAD COPLANARITY (BOTTOM OF LEADS AFTER FORMING) SHALL BE 0.102mm (.004") MAX
0.18
(.077)
0.254
(.010)
1.10
(.043)
MAX
0.22 – 0.38
(.009 – .015)
TYP
0.13 ± 0.076
(.005 ± .003)
0.86
(.034)
REF
0.65
(.0256)
BSC
0° – 6° TYP
DETAIL “A”
DETAIL “A”
GAUGE PLANE
12
34
4.90 ± 0.15
(1.93 ± .006)
8765
3.00 ± 0.102
(.118 ± .004)
(NOTE 3)
3.00 ± 0.102
(.118 ± .004)
NOTE 4
0.52
(.206)
REF
5.23
(.206)
MIN
3.2 – 3.45
(.126 – .136)
0.889 ± 0.127
(.035 ± .005)
RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD LAYOUT
0.42 ± 0.04
(.0165 ± .0015)
TYP
0.65
(.0256)
BSC
L7 LJEJW
16
LTC4400-1/LTC4400-2
sn4400 4400fas
LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2001
LT/TP 0403 1K REV A • PRINTED IN THE USA
PART NUMBER DESCRIPTION COMMENTS
LTC1261 Regulated Inductorless Voltage Inverter Regulated –5V from 3V, REG Pin Indicates Regulation, Up to 15mA, Micropower
LTC1732 Li-Ion Linear Charger Complete Linear Charger for 1- and 2-Cell Li-Ion Battery
LTC1734/LTC1734L ThinSOT Li-Ion Battery Charger Only Two External Components, No Reverse Current Protection Diode Required,
No Sense Resistor Required, PROG Voltage for Charge Termination
LTC1754 ThinSOT Charge Pump 2V V
IN
4V, I
OUT
= 40mA, No Inductors for White LED Backlight
LTC1757A RF Power Controller Single/Dual Band GSM/DCS/GPRS Mobile Phones
LTC1758 RF Power Controller Single/Dual Band GSM/DCS/GPRS Mobile Phones
LTC1957 RF Power Controller Single/Dual Band GSM/DCS/GPRS Mobile Phones
LTC4052 Li-Ion Pulse Charger Complete Pulse Charger for 1-Cell Li-Ion Battery
LTC4401 SOT-23 RF PA Controller Multiband GSM/DCS/GPRS Phones, 45dB Dynamic Range, 250kHz Loop BW
LT®5500 1.8GHz to 2.7GHz Receiver Front End Dual LNA Gain Setting +13.5dB/–14dB at 2.5GHz, Double-Balanced Mixer,
1.8V V
SUPPLY
5.25V
LT5502 400MHz Quadrature IF Demodulator with 70MHz to 400MHz IF, 1.8V V
SUPPLY
5.25V, 84dBm Limiting Gain,
RSSI 90dB RSSI Range
LT5503 1.2GHz to 2.7GHz Direct IQ Modulator with Direct IQ Modulator with Integrated 90° Phase Shifter, 4-Step RF Power Control,
Mixer 1.8V V
SUPPLY
5.25V
LT5504 800MHz to 2.7GHz RF Measuring Receiver 80dB Dynamic Range, Temperature Compensated, 2.7V to 5.5V Supply
LTC5505 300MHz to 3.5GHz RF Power Detector >40dB Dynamic Range, Temperature Compensated, 2.7V to 6V Supply
LTC5507 100kHz to 1GHz RF Power Detector 40dB Dynamic Range, Temperature Compensated, 2.7V to 6V Supply
LTC5508 300MHz to 7GHz RF Power Detector 40dB Dynamic Range, 2.7V to 6V Supply, SC70 Package
LT5511 High Signal Level Up Converting Mixer RF Output to 3GHz, 17dBm IIP3, Integrated LO Buffer
LT5512 High Signal Level Down Converting Mixer DC-3GHz RF Input, 20dBm IIP3, Integrated LO Buffer
RELATED PARTS
TYPICAL APPLICATION
U
LTC4400-2 Dual Band Cellular Telephone Transmitter
V
IN
DAC RF PA
4400 TA03
DIRECTIONAL
COUPLER
RF PA
50
0.1µF
V
CC
SHDN
BSEL
GND
RF
V
PCA
V
PCB
PCTL
LTC4400-2
SHDN
BSEL
Li-Ion
33pF
68
1.8GHz/
1.9GHz
900MHz
DIPLEXER
Linear Technology Corporation
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
FAX: (408) 434-0507
www.linear.com

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