MAX186,188 Datasheet by Maxim Integrated

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maxim Integrated” 3 3333333333 V KEKKKEKKKC
MAX186/MAX188
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at
1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim Integrated’s website at www.maximintegrated.com.
EVALUATION KIT AVAILABLE
General Description
The MAX186/MAX188 are 12-bit data-acquisition sys-
tems that combine an 8-channel multiplexer, high-
bandwidth track/hold, and serial interface together with
high conversion speed and ultra-low power consump-
tion. The devices operate with a single +5V supply or
dual ±5V supplies. The analog inputs are software con-
figurable for unipolar/bipolar and single-ended/differen-
tial operation.
The 4-wire serial interface directly connects to SPI,
QSPI™ and MICROWIRE®devices without external
logic. A serial strobe output allows direct connection to
TMS320 family digital signal processors. The
MAX186/MAX188 use either the internal clock or an
external serial-interface clock to perform successive-
approximation A/D conversions. The serial interface can
operate beyond 4MHz when the internal clock is used.
The MAX186 has an internal 4.096V reference while the
MAX188 requires an external reference. Both parts have
a reference-buffer amplifier that simplifies gain trim .
The MAX186/MAX188 provide a hard-wired SHDN pin
and two software-selectable power-down modes.
Accessing the serial interface automatically powers up
the devices, and the quick turn-on time allows the
MAX186/MAX188 to be shut down between every con-
version. Using this technique of powering down
between conversions, supply current can be cut to
under 10µA at reduced sampling rates.
The MAX186/MAX188 are available in 20-pin PDIP and
SO packages, and in a shrink small-outline package
(SSOP), that occupies 30% less area than an 8-pin
PDIP. For applications that call for a parallel interface,
see the MAX180/MAX181 data sheet. For anti-aliasing
filters, consult the MAX274/MAX275 data sheet.
________________________Applications
Portable Data Logging
Data-Acquisition
High-Accuracy Process Control
Automatic Testing
Robotics
Battery-Powered Instruments
Medical Instruments
____________________________Features
o8-Channel Single-Ended or 4-Channel
Differential Inputs
oSingle +5V or ±5V Operation
oLow Power: 1.5mA (Operating Mode)
2µA (Power-Down Mode)
oInternal Track/Hold, 133kHz Sampling Rate
oInternal 4.096V Reference (MAX186)
oSPI-/QSPI-/MICROWIRE-/TMS320-Compatible
4-Wire Serial Interface
oSoftware-Configurable Unipolar or Bipolar Inputs
o20-Pin PDIP, SO, SSOP Packages
oEvaluation Kit Available
Ordering Information
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
TOP VIEW
PDIP/SO/SSOP
VDD
SCLK
CS
DIN
SSTRB
DOUT
DGND
AGND
REFADJ
VREFSHDN
VSS
CH7
CH6
CH5
CH4
CH3
CH2
CH1
CH0
MAX186
MAX188
+
____________________Pin Configuration
QSPI is a trademark of Motorola.
MICROWIRE is a registered trademark of National
Semiconductor.
19-0123; Rev 5; 1/12
Ordering Information continued on last page.
Parts are offered in grades A, B, C and D (grades defined in
Electrical Characteristics). When ordering, please specify grade.
Contact factory for availability of A-grade in SSOP package.
*
Dice are specified at +25°C, DC parameters only.
+
Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
PART TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
MAX186_CPP+ 0°C to +70°C 20 PDIP
MAX186_CWP+ 0°C to +70°C 20 SO
MAX186_CAP+ 0°C to +70°C 20 SSOP
MAX186DC/D 0°C to +70°C Dice*
MAX186_EPP+ -40°C to +8C 20 PDIP
MAX186_EWP+ -40°C to +8C 20 SO
MAX186_EAP+ -40°C to +8C 20 SSOP
Relative Accuracy (Note 2)
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
2 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VDD = 5V ±5%; VSS = 0V or -5V; fCLK = 2.0MHz, external clock (50% duty cycle); 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps); MAX186—
4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin; MAX188—external reference, VREF = 4.096V applied to VREF pin; TA= TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted.)
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
PARAMETER SYMBOL MIN TYP MAX UNITS
±1.0
LSB
±0.75
±1.0
±0.5
Differential Nonlinearity DNL ±1 LSB
±2.0
±3.0
±3.0
Resolution 12 Bits
±0.5
Offset Error
±3.0
LSB
±3.0
±1.5
±2.0
±2.0
Gain Error (Note 3)
±3.0
LSB
Gain Temperature Coefficient ±0.8 ppm/°C
±0.1 LSB
SINAD 70 dB
THD -80 dB
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range SFDR 80 dB
Channel-to-Channel Crosstalk -85 dB
CONDITIONS
MAX186D/MAX188D
MAX186D/MAX188D
MAX186 (all grades)
MAX188C
MAX186C
MAX186B/MAX188B
No missing codes over temperature
MAX186A/MAX188A
MAX186B/MAX188B
MAX186C/MAX188C
External reference
4.096V (MAX188)
External reference, 4.096V
MAX186A/MAX188A
65kHz, VIN = 4.096VP-P (Note 4)
VDD to AGND............................................................-0.3V to +6V
VSS to AGND ............................................................+0.3V to -6V
VDD to VSS ..............................................................-0.3V to +12V
AGND to DGND.....................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
CH0–CH7 to AGND, DGND .............(VSS - 0.3V) to (VDD + 0.3V)
CH0–CH7 Total Input Current...........................................±20mA
VREF to AGND ...........................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
REFADJ to AGND.......................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Digital Inputs to DGND...............................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Digital Outputs to DGND............................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Digital Output Sink Current .................................................25mA
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
PDIP (derate 11.11mW/°C above +70°C).....................889mW
SO (derate 10.00mW/°C above +70°C)........................800mW
SSOP (derate 8.00mW/°C above +70°C) .....................640mW
Operating Temperature Ranges
MAX186_C/MAX188_C ........................................0°C to +70°C
MAX186_E/MAX188_E......................................-40°C to +85°C
Storage Temperature Range .............................-60°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C
Soldering Temperature (reflow) .......................................+260°C
MAX188A
MAX188B
MAX188C
MAX188D
Channel-to-Channel
Offset Matching
Signal-to-Noise + Distortion Ratio
Total Harmonic Distortion
(up to the 5th harmonic)
DC ACCURACY (Note 1)
DYNAMIC SPECIFICATIONS (10kHz sine wave input, 4.096VP-P, 133ksps, 2.0MHz external clock, bipolar input mode)
External Clock Frequency Range
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 3
MAX186/MAX188
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Small-Signal Bandwidth -3dB rolloff 4.5 MHz
Full-Power Bandwidth 800 kHz
Internal clock 5.5 10
Conversion Time (Note 5) t CONV External clock, 2MHz, 12 clocks/conversion 6µs
Track/Hold Acquisition Time tAZ 1.5 µs
Aperture Delay 10 ns
Aperture Jitter <50 ps
Internal Clock Frequency 1.7 MHz
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VDD = 5V ±5%; VSS = 0V or -5V; fCLK = 2.0MHz, external clock (50% duty cycle); 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps); MAX186—
4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin; MAX188—external reference, VREF = 4.096V applied to VREF pin; TA= TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted.)
External compensation, 4.7µF 0.1 2.0
Internal compensation (Note 6) 0.1 0.4
Used for data transfer only 10
MHz
Unipolar, VSS = 0V
Input Voltage Range,
Single-Ended and Differential
(Note 9) Bipolar, VSS = -5V
V
Multiplexer Leakage Current On/off leakage current, VIN = ±5V ±0.01 ±1 µA
Input Capacitance (Note 6) 16 pF
VREF Output Voltage TA= +25°C 4.076 4.096 4.116 V
VREF Short-Circuit Current 30 mA
MAX186A, MAX186B,
MAX186C
±30 ±50
±30 ±60
VREF Tempco
MAX186D ±30
Load Regulation (Note 7) 0 to 0.5mA output load 2.5
Internal compensation 0
Capacitive Bypass at VREF External compensation 4.7 µF
Internal compensation 0.01
Capacitive Bypass at REFADJ External compensation 0.01 µF
MAX186_C
MAX186_E
REFADJ Adjustment Range ±1.5 %
±VREF/2
0 to
VREF
Input Voltage Range V
Input Current 200 350 µA
Input Resistance 12 20 kΩ
Shutdown VREF Input Current 1.5 10 µA
Buffer Disable Threshold REFADJ VDD -
50mV V
VDD +
2.50 50mV
CONVERSION RATE
ANALOG INPUT
INTERNAL REFERENCE (MAX186 only, reference buffer enabled)
EXTERNAL REFERENCE AT VREF (Buffer disabled, VREF = 4.096V)
ppm/°C
mV
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
4 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VDD = 5V ±5%; VSS = 0V or -5V; fCLK = 2.0MHz, external clock (50% duty cycle); 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps); MAX186—
4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin; MAX188—external reference, VREF = 4.096V applied to VREF pin; TA= TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted.)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX
Internal compensation mode 0µFCapacitive Bypass at VREF External compensation mode 4.7
MAX186 1.678 V/V
MAX188 1.638
MAX186 ±50 µAREFADJ Input Current MAX188 ±5
VINH 2.4 V
VINL 0.8 V
DIN, SCLK, CS Input Hysteresis VHYST 0.15 V
DIN, SCLK, CS Input Leakage IIN VIN = 0V or VDD ±1 µA
CIN (Note 6) 15 pF
SHDN Input High Voltage VINH VDD - 0.5 V
SHDN Input Low Voltage VINL 0.5 V
SHDN Input Current, High IINH VSHDN = VDD 4.0 µA
SHDN Input Current, Low IINL VSHDN = 0V -4.0 µA
SHDN Input Mid Voltage VIM V
SHDN Voltage, Open VFLT VSHDN = open 2.75 V
VSHDN = open -100 100 nA
ISINK = 5mA 0.4
Output Voltage Low VOL ISINK = 16mA 0.3 V
Output Voltage High VOH ISOURCE = 1mA 4 V
Three-State Leakage Current ILVCS = 5V ±10 µA
Three-State Output Capacitance COUT VCS = 5V (Note 6) 15 pF
Positive Supply Voltage VDD 5 ±5% V
DIN, SCLK, CS Input Capacitance
SHDN Max Allowed Leakage,
Mid Input
Negative Supply Voltage VSS 0 or
-5 ±5% V
Operating mode 1.5 2.5
Fast power-down 30 70
Positive Supply Current IDD
Full power-down 210
Operating mode and fast power-down 50
Negative Supply Current ISS Full power-down 10 µA
mA
µA
DIN, SCLK, CS Input Low Voltage
DIN, SCLK, CS Input High Voltage
1.5 VDD -1.5
DIGITAL INPUTS (DIN, SCLK, CCSS, SSHHDDNN)
DIGITAL OUTPUTS (DOUT, SSTRB)
POWER REQUIREMENTS
UNITS
EXTERNAL REFERENCE AT REFADJ
Reference-Buffer Gain
CLOAD = 100pF 20 150SCLK Fall to Output Data Valid tDO MAX18_ _C/E
Note 1: Tested at VDD = 5.0V; VSS = 0V; unipolar input mode.
Note 2: Relative accuracy is the deviation of the analog value at any code from its theoretical value after the full-scale range has
been calibrated.
Note 3: MAX186 – internal reference, offset nulled; MAX188 – external reference (VREF = +4.096V), offset nulled.
Note 4: Ground on-channel; sine wave applied to all off channels.
Note 5: Conversion time defined as the number of clock cycles times the clock period; clock has 50% duty cycle.
Note 6: Guaranteed by design. Not subject to production testing.
Note 7: External load should not change during conversion for specified accuracy.
Note 8: Measured at VSUPPLY +5% and VSUPPLY -5% only.
Note 9: The common-mode range for the analog inputs is from VSS to VDD.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 5
MAX186/MAX188
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS UNITS
Positive Supply Rejection
(Note 8) PSR ±0.06 ±0.5 mV
Negative Supply Rejection
(Note 8) PSR VSS = -5V ±5%; external reference, 4.096V;
full-scale input ±0.01 ±0.5 mV
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VDD = 5V ±5%; VSS = 0V or -5V; fCLK = 2.0MHz, external clock (50% duty cycle); 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps); MAX186—
4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin; MAX188—external reference, VREF = 4.096V applied to VREF pin; TA= TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted.)
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
(VDD = 5V ±5%; VSS =0V or -5V, TA= TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS UNITS
SCLK Pulse Width Low tCL 200 ns
SCLK Fall to SSTRB tSSTRB CLOAD = 100pF 200 ns
tSDV External clock mode only, CLOAD = 100pF 200 ns
tSTR External clock mode only, CLOAD = 100pF 200 ns
tSCK Internal clock mode only 0ns
Acquisition Time tAZ 1.5 µs
DIN to SCLK Setup tDS 100 ns
DIN to SCLK Hold tDH 0ns
ns
CS Fall to Output Enable tDV CLOAD = 100pF 100 ns
CS Rise to Output Disable tTR CLOAD = 100pF 100 ns
CS to SCLK Rise Setup tCSS 100 ns
CS to SCLK Rise Hold tCSH 0ns
SCLK Pulse Width High tCH 200 ns
SSTRB Rise to SCLK Rise
(Note 6)
CS Fall to SSTRB Output Enable
(Note 6)
VDD = 5V ±5%; external reference, 4.096V;
full-scale input
MIN TYP MAX
MIN TYP MAX
CS Rise to SSTRB Output Disable
(Note 6)
20 a 720 4a 730 730 ma 4 20 HO 23 :mg
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
6 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
__________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics
0.30
-0.05
-60 140
POWER-SUPPLY REJECTION
vs. TEMPERATURE
0.00
0.25
TEMPERATURE (°C)
PSR (LSBs)
60
0.10
0.05
-40 20 100
0.15
0.20
-20 0 40 80 120
VDD = +5V ±5%
VSS = 0V or -5V
2.456
INTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE
vs. TEMPERATURE
2.452
2.455
TEMPERATURE (°C)
VREFADJ (V)
2.454
2.453
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
0.16
0
-60 -20 60 140
CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL OFFSET MATCHING
vs. TEMPERATURE
0.02
0.12
TEMPERATURE (°C)
OFFSET MATCHING (LSBs)
20 100
0.10
0.04
-40 0 40 80 120
0.14
0.08
0.06
20
-140
066.5kHz
MAX186/MAX188 FFT PLOT – 133kHz
-120
0
-80
-100
-40
-20
-60
ft = 10kHz
fs = 133kHz
33.25kHz
AMPLITUDE (dB)
FREQUENCY
ft = 10kHz
fs = 133kHz
TA = +25°C
_____________________________________________________________Pin Description
PIN NAME FUNCTION
1–8 CH0–CH7 Sampling Analog Inputs
9 VSS Negative Supply Voltage. Connect to -5V ±5% or AGND
10 SHDN
Three-Level Shutdown Input. Pulling SHDN low shuts the MAX186/MAX188 down to 10μA (max)
supply current, otherwise the MAX186/MAX188 are fully operational. Pulling SHDN high puts the
reference-buffer amplifier in internal compensation mode. Leaving SHDN unconnected puts the
reference-buffer amplifier in external compensation mode.
11 VREF
Reference Voltage for analog-to-digital conversion. Also, output of the reference buffer amplifier
(4.096V in the MAX186, 1.638 x REFADJ in the MAX188). Add a 4.7μF capacitor to ground when
using external compensation mode. Also functions as an input when used with a precision external
I I i DDND i DUND a Hugm VEHaREVaHuVm r: ngfrlmvmancv‘gpluv‘m Flng/E 1 Load C/rCu/ls /0r Eflab/e Tune 3m DUUT DDUT N: I nvm m ngH 'H—I : DUN) DDND 2 HM m quH EHn EHV EH2 EH3 EH4 EH5 EH5 EH7 AGND PEFHDJ WEF DUTPLlT SHIFT REmSTER ANALOG INPUT , MUX L W W IerR SAR ADE om REE , = V :35 ms» REFERENCE 20‘“ mums) Flng/E 2 Load C/rCu/ls /0r DISab/ed Tune Mam Integrated
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 7
MAX186/MAX188
+5V
3kΩ
CLOAD
DGND
DOUT
CLOAD
DGND
3kΩ
DOUT
a. High-Z to VOH and VOL to VOH b. High-Z to VOL and VOH to VOL
+5V
3kΩ
CLOAD
DGND
DOUT
CLOAD
DGND
3kΩ
DOUT
a VOH to High-Z b VOL to High-Z
Figure 1. Load Circuits for Enable Time
Figure 2. Load Circuits for Disabled Time
INPUT
SHIFT
REGISTER CONTROL
LOGIC
INT
CLOCK
OUTPUT
SHIFT
REGISTER
+2.46V
REFERENCE
(MAX186)
T/H
ANALOG
INPUT
MUX
12-BIT
SAR
ADC
IN
DOUT
SSTRB
VDD
DGND
VSS
SCLK
DIN
CH0
CH1
CH3
CH2
CH7
CH6
CH5
CH4
AGND
REFADJ
VREF
OUT
REF
CLOCK
+4.096V
20kΩ
1.65
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
13
15
16
17
18
19
MAX186
MAX188
CS
SHDN
A
20
14
9
Figure 3. Block Diagram
________________________________________________Pin Description (continued)
PIN NAME FUNCTION
12 REFADJ
Input to the Reference-Buffer Amplifier. To disable the reference-buffer amplifier, connect REFADJ to
VDD.
13 AGND Analog Ground. Also IN- Input for single-ended conversions.
14 DGND Digital Ground
15 DOUT Serial Data Output. Data is clocked out at the falling edge of SCLK. High impedance when CS is high.
16 SSTRB
Serial Strobe Output. In internal clock mode, SSTRB goes low when the MAX186/MAX188 begin the
A/D conversion and goes high when the conversion is done. In external clock mode, SSTRB pulses
high for one clock period before the MSB decision. High impedance when CS is high (external mode).
17 DIN Serial Data Input. Data is clocked in at the rising edge of SCLK.
18 CS
Active-Low Chip Select. Data will not be clocked into DIN unless CS is low. When CS is high, DOUT
is high impedance.
19 SCLK
Serial Clock Input. Clocks data in and out of serial interface. In external clock mode, SCLK also sets
the conversion speed. (Duty cycle must be 40% to 60% in external clock mode.)
20 VDD Positive Supply Voltage, +5V ±5%
CHD *0 CHV 40 CH2 40 CH3 40 CH4 40 CH5 —0 CH6 —o 01740 SWHCH ACND
_______________Detailed Description
The MAX186/MAX188 use a successive-approximation
conversion technique and input track/hold (T/H) circuit-
ry to convert an analog signal to a 12-bit digital output.
A flexible serial interface provides easy interface to
microprocessors. No external hold capacitors are
required. Figure 3 shows the block diagram for the
MAX186/MAX188.
Pseudo-Differential Input
The sampling architecture of the ADC’s analog com-
parator is illustrated in the Equivalent Input Circuit
(Figure 4). In single-ended mode, IN+ is internally
switched to CH0-CH7 and IN- is switched to AGND. In
differential mode, IN+ and IN- are selected from pairs
of CH0/CH1, CH2/CH3, CH4/CH5 and CH6/CH7.
Configure the channels with Table 3 and Table 4.
In differential mode, IN- and IN+ are internally switched
to either one of the analog inputs. This configuration is
pseudo-differential to the effect that only the signal at
IN+ is sampled. The return side (IN-) must remain sta-
ble within ±0.5LSB (±0.1LSB for best results) with
respect to AGND during a conversion. Accomplish this
by connecting a 0.1µF capacitor from AIN- (the select-
ed analog input, respectively) to AGND.
During the acquisition interval, the channel selected as
the positive input (IN+) charges capacitor CHOLD. The
acquisition interval spans three SCLK cycles and ends
on the falling SCLK edge after the last bit of the input
control word has been entered. At the end of the acqui-
sition interval, the T/H switch opens, retaining charge
on CHOLD as a sample of the signal at IN+.
The conversion interval begins with the input multiplex-
er switching CHOLD from the positive input (IN+) to the
negative input (IN-). In single-ended mode, IN- is sim-
ply AGND. This unbalances node ZERO at the input of
the comparator. The capacitive DAC adjusts during the
remainder of the conversion cycle to restore node
ZERO to 0V within the limits of 12-bit resolution. This
action is equivalent to transferring a charge of 16pF x
[(VIN+) - (VIN-)] from CHOLD to the binary-weighted
capacitive DAC, which in turn forms a digital represen-
tation of the analog input signal.
Track/Hold
The T/H enters its tracking mode on the falling clock
edge after the fifth bit of the 8-bit control word has been
shifted in. The T/H enters its hold mode on the falling
clock edge after the eighth bit of the control word has
been shifted in. If the converter is set up for
single-ended inputs, IN- is connected to AGND, and
the converter samples the “+” input. If the converter is
set up for differential inputs, IN- connects to the “-”
input, and the difference of |IN+ - IN-|is sampled. At
the end of the conversion, the positive input connects
back to IN+, and CHOLD charges to the input signal.
The time required for the T/H to acquire an input signal
is a function of how quickly its input capacitance is
charged. If the input signal’s source impedance is high,
the acquisition time lengthens and more time must be
allowed between conversions. Acquisition time is cal-
culated by:
tAZ = 9 x (RS+ RIN) x 16pF,
where RIN = 5kΩ, RS= the source impedance of the
input signal, and tAZ is never less than 1.5µs. Note that
source impedances below 5kΩdo not significantly
affect the AC performance of the ADC. Higher source
impedances can be used if an input capacitor is con-
nected to the analog inputs, as shown in Figure 5. Note
that the input capacitor forms an RC filter with the input
source impedance, limiting the ADC’s signal bandwidth.
Input Bandwidth
The ADC’s input tracking circuitry has a 4.5MHz
small-signal bandwidth, so it is possible to digitize
high-speed transient events and measure periodic sig-
nals with bandwidths exceeding the ADC’s sampling
rate by using undersampling techniques. To avoid
high-frequency signals being aliased into the frequency
band of interest, anti-alias filtering is recommended.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
8 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
CH0
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH7
AGND
CSWITCH
TRACK
T/H
SWITCH
10kΩ
RS
CHOLD
HOLD
12-BIT CAPACITIVE DAC
VREF
ZERO
COMPARATOR
+
16pF
SINGLE-ENDED MODE: IN+ = CHO-CH7, IN– = AGND.
DIFFERENTIAL MODE: IN+ AND IN– SELECTED FROM PAIRS OF
CH0/CH1, CH2/CH3, CH4/CH5, CH6/CH7.
AT THE SAMPLING INSTANT,
THE MUX INPUT SWITCHES
FROM THE SELECTED IN+
CHANNEL TO THE SELECTED
IN– CHANNEL.
INPUT
MUX
Figure 4. Equivalent Input Circuit
T E DtN <7 m="" osv="" m="" duut="" wmx="" refadj="" 55“”="" vref="" shdn="" i="" n="" c="" o2="" 5v="" +2="" 5v="" """"""="" reference="" analog="" input="" range="" and="" input="" protection="" tnternat="" protectton="" dtodes‘="" whtch="" ctarnp="" the="" anatog="" tnput="" to="" vdd="" and="" vss‘="" ahow="" the="" channet="" tnput="" ptns="" t0="" swtng="" lrom="" v35="" -="" 0="" 3v="" to="" vdd="" +="" 0.3v="" wtthout="" damage="" however‘="" for="" accurate="" converstons="" near="" qu="" scate.="" the="" tnputs="" rnust="" not="" exceed="" vdd="" by="" rnore="" than="" 50rnv‘="" or="" be="" tower="" than="" v55="" by="" sdmv,="" ll="" the="" analog="" input="" exceeds="" 50mv="" beyond="" the="" sup-="" plies,="" do="" not="" forward="" bias="" the="" protection="" diodes="" of="" off-channels="" over="" two="" mperes,="" as="" excessive="" current="" will="" degrade="" the="" conversion="" accuracy="" of="" the="" on-channel.="" the="" luh-scate="" tnput="" vottage="" depends="" on="" the="" vottage="" at="" vref="" see="" tabtes="" 1a="" and="" 1b,="" quick="" look="" to="" evatuate="" the="" anatog="" performance="" of="" the="" maxwbb/maxtbb="" dutckty="" use="" the="" ctrcmt="" 01="" thure="" 5="" the="" maxtbg/maxwbb="" requtre="" a="" controt="" byte="" to="" be="" wnt-="" ten="" to="" un="" before="" each="" converston="" tytng="" dtn="" to="" +5v="" feeds="" h'l="" controt="" bytes="" of="" $ff="" (hexl="" whtch="" tngger="" maxtm="" integrated="" zero="" relerence="" scale="" full="" tnternat="" reference="" (maxlfie="" onty)="" 0v="" *4="" externat="" relerence="" at="" refadj="" 0v="" vp“="" at="" vnee="" 0v="" vn="" negative="" zero="" “amen“="" full="" scale="" scale="" fu"="" tnternat="" reference="" (max‘bb="" ohm="" 4:="" 096w?="" 0v="" +4="" 0="" externat="" relerence="" 4/2vruh3="" 0v="" may="" at="" refadj="" x="" a"="" x="" at="" vnee="" «2="" we="" 0v="" +th="">
Full Scale
VREFADJ x A*
Analog Input Range and Input Protection
Internal protection diodes, which clamp the analog
input to VDD and VSS, allow the channel input pins to
swing from VSS - 0.3V to VDD + 0.3V without damage.
However, for accurate conversions near full scale, the
inputs must not exceed VDD by more than 50mV, or be
lower than VSS by 50mV.
If the analog input exceeds 50mV beyond the sup-
plies, do not forward bias the protection diodes of
off-channels over two milliamperes, as excessive
current will degrade the conversion accuracy of the
on-channel.
The full-scale input voltage depends on the voltage at
VREF. See Tables 1a and 1b.
Quick Look
To evaluate the analog performance of the
MAX186/MAX188 quickly, use the circuit of Figure 5.
The MAX186/MAX188 require a control byte to be writ-
ten to DIN before each conversion. Tying DIN to +5V
feeds in control bytes of $FF (HEX), which trigger
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 9
MAX186/MAX188
Reference Zero
Scale Full Scale
Internal Reference
(MAX186 only) 0V +4.096V
0V
at VREF 0V VREF
External Reference
at REFADJ
Reference Negative
Full Scale
Zero
Scale
Internal Reference
(MAX186 only) -4.096V/2 0V
External Reference
at REFADJ
-1/2VREFADJ
x A* 0V
at VREF -1/2 VREF 0V
+4.096V/2
+1/2VREFADJ
x A*
+1/2 VREF
0.1µF
VDD
DGND
AGND
VSS
CS
SCLK
DIN
DOUT
SSTRB
SHDN
+5V
N.C.
0.01µF
CH7
REFADJ
VREF
C2
0.01µF
+2.5V
REFERENCE
C1
4.7µF
D1
1N4148
+5V
0V TO
4.096V
ANALOG
INPUT
+2.5V **
OSCILLOSCOPE
CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4
* FULL-SCALE ANALOG INPUT, CONVERSION RESULT = $FFF (HEX)
**REQUIRED FOR MAX188 ONLY. A POTENTIOMETER MAY BE USED IN PLACE OF THE REFERENCE FOR TEST PURPOSES.
MAX186
MAX188
+5V
2MHz
OSCILLATOR
SCLK
SSTRB
DOUT*
Figure 5. Quick-Look Circuit
* A = 1.678 for the MAX186, 1.638 for the MAX188
Table 1b. Bipolar Full Scale, Zero Scale, and
Negative Full Scale
Table 1a. Unipolar Full Scale and Zero Scale
* A = 1.678 for the MAX186, 1.638 for the MAX188
single-ended unipolar conversions on CH7 in external
clock mode without powering down between conver-
sions. In external clock mode, the SSTRB output pulses
high for one clock period before the most significant bit
of the 12-bit conversion result comes out of DOUT.
Varying the analog input to CH7 should alter the
sequence of bits from DOUT. A total of 15 clock cycles
is required per conversion. All transitions of the SSTRB
and DOUT outputs occur on the falling edge of SCLK.
How to Start a Conversion
A conversion is started on the MAX186/MAX188 by
clocking a control byte into DIN. Each rising edge on
SCLK, with CS low, clocks a bit from DIN into the
MAX186/MAX188’s internal shift register. After CS falls,
the first arriving logic “1” bit defines the MSB of the
control byte. Until this first “start” bit arrives, any num-
ber of logic “0” bits can be clocked into DIN with no
effect. Table 2 shows the control-byte format.
The MAX186/MAX188 are fully compatible with
Microwire and SPI devices. For SPI, select the correct
clock polarity and sampling edge in the SPI control reg-
isters: set CPOL = 0 and CPHA = 0. Microwire and SPI
both transmit a byte and receive a byte at the same
time. Using the
Typical Operating Circuit
, the simplest
software interface requires only three 8-bit transfers to
perform a conversion (one 8-bit transfer to configure
the ADC, and two more 8-bit transfers to clock out the
12-bit conversion result).
Example: Simple Software Interface
Make sure the CPU’s serial interface runs in master
mode so the CPU generates the serial clock. Choose a
clock frequency from 100kHz to 2MHz.
1) Set up the control byte for external clock mode, call
it TB1. TB1 should be of the format: 1XXXXX11
Binary, where the Xs denote the particular channel
and conversion-mode selected.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
10 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
(MSB) (LSB)
START SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/BIP SGL/DIF PD1 PD0
Bit Name Description
7(MSB) START The first logic “1” bit after CS goes low defines the beginning of the control byte.
6 SEL2 These three bits select which of the eight channels are used for the conversion.
5 SEL1 See Tables 3 and 4.
4 SEL0
3 UNI/BIP 1= unipolar, 0= bipolar. Selects unipolar or bipolar conversion mode. In unipolar
mode, an analog input signal from 0V to VREF can be converted; in bipolar mode, the
signal can range from -VREF/2 to +VREF/2.
2 SGL/DIF 1= single ended, 0= differential. Selects single-ended or differential conversions. In
single-ended mode, input signal voltages are referred to AGND. In differential mode,
the voltage difference between two channels is measured. See Tables 3 and 4.
1 PD1 Selects clock and power-down modes.
0(LSB) PD0 PD1 PD0 Mode
00Full power-down (IQ= 2µA)
01Fast power-down (IQ= 30µA)
10Internal clock mode
1 1 External clock mode
Table 2. Control-Byte Format
2) Use a general-purpose I/O line on the CPU to pull
CS on the MAX186/MAX188 low.
3) Transmit TB1 and simultaneously receive a byte
and call it RB1. Ignore RB1.
4) Transmit a byte of all zeros ($00 HEX) and simulta-
neously receive byte RB2.
5) Transmit a byte of all zeros ($00 HEX) and simulta-
neously receive byte RB3.
6) Pull CS on the MAX186/MAX188 high.
Figure 6 shows the timing for this sequence. Bytes RB2
and RB3 will contain the result of the conversion
padded with one leading zero and three trailing zeros.
The total conversion time is a function of the serial
clock frequency and the amount of dead time between
8-bit transfers. Make sure that the total conversion time
does not exceed 120µs, to avoid excessive T/H droop.
Digital Output
In unipolar input mode, the output is straight binary
(see Figure 15). For bipolar inputs, the output is
twos-complement (see Figure 16). Data is clocked out
at the falling edge of SCLK in MSB-first format.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 11
MAX186/MAX188
SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 CH0 CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7 AGND
00 0 +
10 0 +
00 1 +
10 1 +
01 0 +
11 0 +
01 1 +
11 1 +
Table 3. Channel Selection in Single-Ended Mode (SGL/DDIIFFFF= 1)
SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 CH0 CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7
00 0 +
00 1 +
01 0 +
01 1 +–
10 0 +
10 1 +
11 0 +
11 1 –+
Table 4. Channel Selection in Differential Mode (SGL/DDIIFFFF= 0)
um su
Internal and External Clock Modes
The MAX186/MAX188 may use either an external serial
clock or the internal clock to perform the
successive-approximation conversion. In both clock
modes, the external clock shifts data in and out of the
MAX186/MAX188. The T/H acquires the input signal as
the last three bits of the control byte are clocked into
DIN. Bits PD1 and PD0 of the control byte program the
clock mode. Figures 7 through 10 show the timing
characteristics common to both modes.
External Clock
In external clock mode, the external clock not only shifts
data in and out, it also drives the analog-to-digital con-
version steps. SSTRB pulses high for one clock period
after the last bit of the control byte. Successive-approxi-
mation bit decisions are made and appear at DOUT on
each of the next 12 SCLK falling edges (see Figure 6).
SSTRB and DOUT go into a high-impedance state when
CS goes high; after the next CS falling edge, SSTRB will
output a logic low. Figure 8 shows the SSTRB timing in
external clock mode.
The conversion must complete in some minimum time, or
else droop on the sample-and-hold capacitors may
degrade conversion results. Use internal clock mode if the
clock period exceeds 10µs, or if serial-clock interruptions
could cause the conversion interval to exceed 120µs.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
12 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
SSTRB
CS
SCLK
DIN
DOUT
14 8 12 16 20 24
START
SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/
BIP SCL/
DIFF PD1 PD0
B11
MSB B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0
LSB
ACQUISITION
1.5μs (CLK = 2MHz)
IDLE
FILLED WITH
ZEROS
IDLE
CONVERSION
tACQ
A/D STATE
RB1
RB2 RB3
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
CS
SCLK
DIN
DOUT
tCSH
tCSS tCL
tDS
tDH
tDV
tCH
tDO tTR
tCSH
Figure 6. 24-Bit External Clock Mode Conversion Timing (SPI, QSPI and Microwire Compatible)
Figure 7. Detailed Serial-Interface Timing
u fl? n SCL um u n ( r—591 INS
Internal Clock
In internal clock mode, the MAX186/MAX188 generate
their own conversion clock internally. This frees the
microprocessor from the burden of running the SAR con-
version clock, and allows the conversion results to be
read back at the processor’s convenience, at any clock
rate from zero to typically 10MHz. SSTRB goes low at the
start of the conversion and then goes high when the con-
version is complete. SSTRB will be low for a maximum of
10µs, during which time SCLK should remain low for best
noise performance. An internal register stores data when
the conversion is in progress. SCLK clocks the data out
at this register at any time after the conversion is com-
plete. After SSTRB goes high, the next falling clock edge
will produce the MSB of the conversion at DOUT, fol-
lowed by the remaining bits in MSB-first format (see
Figure 9). CS does not need to be held low once a con-
version is started. Pulling CS high prevents data from
being clocked into the MAX186/MAX188 and three-
states DOUT, but it does not adversely effect an internal
clock-mode conversion already in progress. When inter-
nal clock mode is selected, SSTRB does not go into a
high-impedance state when CS goes high.
Figure 10 shows the SSTRB timing in internal clock
mode. In internal clock mode, data can be shifted in and
out of the MAX186/MAX188 at clock rates exceeding
4.0MHz, provided that the minimum acquisition time, tAZ,
is kept above 1.5µs.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 13
MAX186/MAX188
• • •
• • • • • •
• • •
tSDV
tSSTRB
PD0 CLOCKED IN
tSTR
SSTRB
SCLK
CS
tSSTRB
• • • • • •
SSTRB
CS
SCLK
DIN
DOUT
14 8 12 18 20 24
START
SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/
DIP SCL/
DIFF PD1 PD0
B11
MSB B10 B9 B2 B1 B0
LSB
ACQUISITION
1.5μs (CLK = 2MHz)
IDLE
FILLED WITH
ZEROS
IDLE
CONVERSION
10μs MAX
A/D STATE
2 3 5 6 7 9 10 11 19 21 22 23
tCONV
Figure 8. External Clock Mode SSTRB Detailed Timing
Figure 9. Internal Clock Mode Timing
Data Framing
The falling edge of CS does not start a conversion on the
MAX186/MAX188. The first logic high clocked into DIN is
interpreted as a start bit and defines the first bit of the
control byte. A conversion starts on the falling edge of
SCLK, after the eighth bit of the control byte (the PD0 bit)
is clocked into DIN. The start bit is defined as:
The first high bit clocked into DIN with CS low any-
time the converter is idle, e.g. after VCC is applied.
OR
The first high bit clocked into DIN after bit 5 of a
conversion in progress is clocked onto the DOUT pin.
If a falling edge on CS forces a start bit before bit 5
(B5) becomes available, then the current conversion
will be terminated and a new one started. Thus, the
fastest the MAX186/MAX188 can run is 15 clocks per
conversion. Figure 11a shows the serial-interface timing
necessary to perform a conversion every 15 SCLK
cycles in external clock mode. If CS is low and SCLK is
continuous, guarantee a start bit by first clocking in 16
zeros.
Most microcontrollers require that conversions occur in
multiples of 8 SCLK clocks; 16 clocks per conversion
will typically be the fastest that a microcontroller can
drive the MAX186/MAX188. Figure 11b shows the
serial-interface timing necessary to perform a conver-
sion every 16 SCLK cycles in external clock mode.
__________ Applications Information
Power-On Reset
When power is first applied and if SHDN is not pulled
low, internal power-on reset circuitry will activate the
MAX186/MAX188 in internal clock mode, ready to con-
vert with SSTRB = high. After the power supplies have
been stabilized, the internal reset time is 100µs and no
conversions should be performed during this phase.
SSTRB is high on power-up and, if CS is low, the first
logical 1 on DIN will be interpreted as a start bit. Until a
conversion takes place, DOUT will shift out zeros.
Reference-Buffer Compensation
In addition to its shutdown function, the SHDN pin also
selects internal or external compensation. The compen-
sation affects both power-up time and maximum conver-
sion speed. Compensated or not, the minimum clock
rate is 100kHz due to droop on the sample-and-hold.
To select external compensation, open SHDN. See the
Typical Operating Circuit
, which uses a 4.7µF capacitor at
VREF. A value of 4.7µF or greater ensures stability and
allows operation of the converter at the full clock speed of
2MHz. External compensation increases power-up time (see
the
Choosing Power-Down Mode
section, and Table 5).
Internal compensation requires no external capacitor at
VREF, and is selected by pulling SHDN high. Internal com-
pensation allows for shortest power-up times, but is only
available using an external clock and reduces the maxi-
mum clock rate to 400kHz.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
14 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
PD0 CLOCK IN
tSSTRB
tCSH
tCONV
tSCK
SSTRB • • •
SCLK • • •
tCSS
NOTE: FOR BEST NOISE PERFORMANCE, KEEP SCLK LOW DURING CONVERSION.
CS • • •
Figure 10. Internal Clock Mode SSTRB Detailed Timing
Power-Down
Choosing Power-Down Mode
You can save power by placing the converter in a
low-current shutdown state between conversions.
Select full power-down or fast power-down mode via
bits 7 and 8 of the DIN control byte with SHDN high or
open (see Tables 2 and 6). Pull SHDN low at any time to
shut down the converter completely. SHDN overrides
bits 7 and 8 of DIN word (see Table 7).
Full power-down mode turns off all chip functions that draw
quiescent current, reducing IDD and ISS typically to 2µA.
Fast power-down mode turns off all circuitry except the
bandgap reference. With the fast power-down mode, the
supply current is 30µA. Power-up time can be shortened
to 5µs in internal compensation mode.
In both software shutdown modes, the serial interface
remains operational, however, the ADC will not convert.
Table 5 illustrates how the choice of reference-buffer
compensation and power-down mode affects both
power-up delay and maximum sample rate.
In external compensation mode, the power-up time is
20ms with a 4.7µF compensation capacitor (200ms with
a 33µF capacitor) when the capacitor is fully discharged.
In fast power-down, you can eliminate start-up time by
using low-leakage capacitors that will not discharge
more than 1/2LSB while shut down. In shutdown, the
capacitor has to supply the current into the reference
(1.5µA typ) and the transient currents at power-up.
Figures 12a and 12b illustrate the various power-down
sequences in both external and internal clock modes.
Software Power-Down
Software power-down is activated using bits PD1 and
PD0 of the control byte. As shown in Table 6, PD1 and
PD0 also specify the clock mode. When software shut-
down is asserted, the ADC will continue to operate in
the last specified clock mode until the conversion is
complete. Then the ADC powers down into a low quies-
cent-current state. In internal clock mode, the interface
remains active and conversion results may be clocked
out while the MAX186/MAX188 have already entered a
software power-down.
The first logical 1 on DIN will be interpreted as a start
bit, and powers up the MAX186/MAX188. Following the
start bit, the data input word or control byte also deter-
mines clock and power-down modes. For example, if
the DIN word contains PD1 = 1, then the chip will
remain powered up. If PD1 = 0, a power-down will
resume after one conversion.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 15
MAX186/MAX188
SCLK
DIN
DOUT
CS
S CONTROL BYTE 0 CONTROL BYTE 1S
CONVERSION RESULT 0
B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0
CONVERSION RESULT 1
SSTRB
B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0
CONTROL BYTE 2S
18181
CS
SCLK
DIN
DOUT
S CONTROL BYTE 0 CONTROL BYTE 1S
CONVERSION RESULT 0
B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 B11 B10 B9 B8
CONVERSION RESULT 1
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
Figure 11a. External Clock Mode, 15 Clocks/Conversion Timing
Figure 11b. External Clock Mode, 16 Clocks/Conversion Timing
,1 , ‘
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
16 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
Reference Reference- VREF Power- Power-Up Maximum
Buffer Buffer Capacitor Down Delay Sampling
Compensation F) Mode (s) Rate (ksps)
Mode
Enabled Internal Fast 26
Enabled Internal Full 300µ 26
Enabled External 4.7 Fast See Figure 14c 133
Enabled External 4.7 Full See Figure 14c 133
Disabled Fast 2µ 133
Disabled Full 2µ 133
Table 5. Typical Power-Up Delay Times
PD1 PD0 Device Mode
1 1 External Clock Mode
1 0 Internal Clock Mode
0 1 Fast Power-Down Mode
0 0 Full Power-Down Mode
SSHHDDNNDevice Reference-Buffer
State Mode Compensation
1 Enabled Internal Compensation
Open Enabled External Compensation
0 Full Power-Down N/A
Table 6. Software Shutdown and Clock Mode Table 7. Hard-Wired Shutdown and
Compensation Mode
POWERED UP
FULL
POWER
DOWN
POWERED
UP
POWERED UP
DATA VALID
(12 DATA BITS)
DATA VALID
(12 DATA BITS)
DATA INVALID
VALID
EXTERNAL
EXTERNAL
INTERNAL
SXXXXX11 S 01
XXXXX XX XXX
S11
FAST
POWER-DOWN
MODE
DOUT
DIN
CLOCK
MODE
SHDN
SETS EXTERNAL
CLOCK MODE
SETS EXTERNAL
CLOCK MODE
SETS FAST
POWER-DOWN
MODE
Figure 12a. Timing Diagram Power-Down Modes, External Clock
FR ,L ‘ M 88 WW WWAS—W Mam Integrated
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 17
MAX186/MAX188
FULL
POWER-DOWN POWERED
UP
POWERED UP
DATA VALID DATA VALID
INTERNAL CLOCK MODE
SXXXXX10 S 00
XXXXX S
MODE
DOUT
DIN
CLOCK
MODE SETS INTERNAL
CLOCK MODE
SETS FULL
POWER-DOWN
CONVERSION
CONVERSION
SSTRB
100
DIN
REFADJ
VREF
2.5V
0V
4V
0V
101 1 11100 101
FULLPD FASTPD NOPD FULLPD FASTPD
2ms WAIT
COMPLETE CONVERSION SEQUENCE
tBUFFEN 15µs
τ = RC = 20kΩ x CREFADJ
(ZEROS) CH1 CH7 (ZEROS)
Hardware Power-Down
The SHDN pin places the converter into the full
power-down mode. Unlike with the software shut-down
modes, conversion is not completed. It stops coinci-
dentally with SHDN being brought low. There is no
power-up delay if an external reference is used and is
not shut down. The SHDN pin also selects internal or
external reference compensation (see Table 7).
Power-Down Sequencing
The MAX186/MAX188 auto power-down modes can
save considerable power when operating at less than
maximum sample rates. The following discussion illus-
trates the various power-down sequences.
Lowest Power at up to 500
Conversions/Channel/Second
The following examples illustrate two different power-down
sequences. Other combinations of clock rates, compen-
sation modes, and power-down modes may give lowest
power consumption in other applications.
Figure 14a depicts the MAX186 power consumption for
one or eight channel conversions utilizing full
power-down mode and internal reference compensation.
A 0.01µF bypass capacitor at REFADJ forms an RC filter
with the internal 20kΩreference resistor with a 0.2ms
time constant. To achieve full 12-bit accuracy, 10 time
constants or 2ms are required after power-up. Waiting
2ms in FASTPD mode instead of full power-up will reduce
the power consumption by a factor of 10 or more. This is
achieved by using the sequence shown in Figure 13.
Figure 12b. Timing Diagram Power-Down Modes, Internal Clock
Figure 13. MAX186 FULLPD/FASTPD Power-Up Sequence
MHZ EXTERNAL ULDCK ERMAL COMPENSATTUN External and Internal References The MAX186 can be used wnh an fnternaT or externaT reference. whereas an externaT reference 1s reqmred tor the MAX188 Dfode D1 shown 1n the Typical Operating Cfrcu/t ensures correct start-up. Any standard sfgnaT dfode can be used For both parts‘ an externaT refer- ence can efther be connected dfrectTy at the VREF ter- mfnaT or at the REFADJ pfn. An fnternaT butter 1s desfgned to provfde 4 096V at VREF tor both the MAX186 and MAX188 The MAX186's fnternahy trfrnrned 2.46V reference 1s buffered w1th a gafn 01 1 678 The MAX188‘s buffer 1s tnmmed w1th a buffer gafn 0f1.638 to scaTe an externaT 2 5V reference at REFADJ to 4.096\/ at VREF, MAX 186 Internal Reference The tuH-scaTe range of the MAX186 w1th fnternaT reference 18 4,096\/ wnh unfpoTar fnputs and :2 048V w1th bprTar H'tthIS. The fnternaT reference voTtage 1s adrustabTe to :1 5% w1th the Reference-Adjust Cfrcuft 01 ngure 17 15 n [mum com um 01 1 m TTMETNSHLtTDUWMm) External H Wfth both the MAX186 and MAX188‘ an exte ence can be pTaced at efther the fnput (REFAD output (VREF) of the fnternaT buffer arin REFADJ fnput fmpedance 1s typfcaHy 20k MAX186 and hfgher than 100kS2 for the MAX1 the fnternaT reference 15. ornftted, At VREFr fmpedance 1s a mfnfrnurn 0f12k§210r DC Dunng conversfon. an externaT reference at V be abTe to dehver up to 350pA DC Toad current an output fmpedance of1OS2 or Tess, 1f the refe hfgher output fmpedance or 1s HOTSy‘ bypass the VREF pfn w1th a 4,7uF capacftor Maxi
Lowest Power at Higher Throughputs
Figure 14b shows the power consumption with
external-reference compensation in fast power-down,
with one and eight channels converted. The external
4.7µF compensation requires a 50µs wait after power-up,
accomplished by 75 idle clocks after a dummy conver-
sion. This circuit combines fast multi-channel conversion
with lowest power consumption possible. Full
power-down mode may provide increased power sav-
ings in applications where the MAX186/MAX188 are
inactive for long periods of time, but where intermittent
bursts of high-speed conversions are required.
External and Internal References
The MAX186 can be used with an internal or external
reference, whereas an external reference is required for
the MAX188. Diode D1 shown in the
Typical Operating
Circuit
ensures correct start-up. Any standard signal
diode can be used. For both parts, an external refer-
ence can either be connected directly at the VREF ter-
minal or at the REFADJ pin.
An internal buffer is designed to provide 4.096V at
VREF for both the MAX186 and MAX188. The
MAX186’s internally trimmed 2.46V reference is
buffered with a gain of 1.678. The MAX188's buffer is
trimmed with a buffer gain of 1.638 to scale an external
2.5V reference at REFADJ to 4.096V at VREF.
MAX186 Internal Reference
The full-scale range of the MAX186 with internal reference
is 4.096V with unipolar inputs, and ±2.048V with bipolar
inputs. The internal reference voltage is adjustable to
±1.5% with the Reference-Adjust Circuit of Figure 17.
External Reference
With both the MAX186 and MAX188, an external refer-
ence can be placed at either the input (REFADJ) or the
output (VREF) of the internal buffer amplifier. The
REFADJ input impedance is typically 20kΩfor the
MAX186 and higher than 100kΩfor the MAX188, where
the internal reference is omitted. At VREF, the input
impedance is a minimum of 12kΩfor DC currents.
During conversion, an external reference at VREF must
be able to deliver up to 350µA DC load current and have
an output impedance of 10Ωor less. If the reference has
higher output impedance or is noisy, bypass it close to
the VREF pin with a 4.7µF capacitor.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
18 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
1000
1
0 100 300 500
MAX186
FULL POWER-DOWN
10
100
MAX186-14A
CONVERSIONS PER CHANNEL PER SECOND
200 400
2ms FASTPD WAIT
400kHz EXTERNAL CLOCK
INTERNAL COMPENSATION
50 150 250 350 450
8 CHANNELS
1 CHANNEL
AVG. SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
10,000
10
0
MAX186/MAX188
FAST POWER-DOWN
100
1000
CONVERSIONS PER CHANNEL PER SECOND
2k
8 CHANNELS
1 CHANNEL
4k 6k 8k 10k 12k 14k 16k 18k
2MHz EXTERNAL CLOCK
EXTERNAL COMPENSATION
50µs WAIT
AVG. SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
Figure 14a. MAX186 Supply Current vs. Sample Rate/Second,
FULLPD, 400kHz Clock
Figure 14b. MAX186/MAX188 Supply Current vs. Sample
Rate/Second, FASTPD, 2MHz Clock
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
TIME IN SHUTDOWN (sec)
POWER-UP DELAY (ms)
Figure 14c. Typical Power-Up Delay vs. Time in Shutdown
Using the buffered REFADJ input avoids external
buffering of the reference. To use the direct VREF input,
disable the internal buffer by tying REFADJ to VDD.
Transfer Function and Gain Adjust
Figure 15 depicts the nominal, unipolar input/output
(I/O) transfer function, and Figure 16 shows the bipolar
input/output transfer function. Code transitions occur
halfway between successive integer LSB values. Output
coding is binary with 1 LSB = 1.00mV (4.096V/4096) for
unipolar operation and 1 LSB = 1.00mV ((4.096V/2 -
-4.096V/2)/4096) for bipolar operation.
Figure 17, the MAX186 Reference-Adjust Circuit, shows
how to adjust the ADC gain in applications that use the
internal reference. The circuit provides ±1.5%
(±65LSBs) of gain adjustment range.
Layout, Grounding, Bypassing
For best performance, use printed circuit boards.
Wire-wrap boards are not recommended. Board layout
should ensure that digital and analog signal lines are
separated from each other. Do not run analog and digi-
tal (especially clock) lines parallel to one another, or
digital lines underneath the ADC package.
Figure 18 shows the recommended system ground
connections. A single-point analog ground (“star”
ground point) should be established at AGND, sepa-
rate from the logic ground. All other analog grounds
and DGND should be connected to this ground. No
other digital system ground should be connected to
this single-point analog ground. The ground return to
the power supply for this ground should be low imped-
ance and as short as possible for noise-free operation.
High-frequency noise in the VDD power supply may
affect the high-speed comparator in the ADC. Bypass
these supplies to the single-point analog ground with
0.1µF and 4.7µF bypass capacitors close to the
MAX186/MAX188. Minimize capacitor lead lengths for
best supply-noise rejection. If the +5V power supply is
very noisy, a 10Ωresistor can be connected as a low-
pass filter, as shown in Figure 18.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 19
MAX186/MAX188
OUTPUT CODE
FULL-SCALE
TRANSITION
11 . . . 111
11 . . . 110
11 . . . 101
00 . . . 011
00 . . . 010
00 . . . 001
00 . . . 000
123
0FS
FS - 3/2LSB
FS = +4.096V
1LSB = FS
4096
INPUT VOLTAGE (LSBs)
011 . . . 111
011 . . . 110
000 . . . 010
000 . . . 001
000 . . . 000
111 . . . 111
111 . . . 110
111 . . . 101
100 . . . 001
100 . . . 000
-FS 0V
INPUT VOLTAGE (LSBs)
+FS - 1LSB
FS = +4.096
2
1LSB = +4.096
4096
+5V
510kΩ
100kΩ
24kΩ0.01μF
12 REFADJ
MAX186
Figure 17. MAX186 Reference-Adjust Circuit
Figure 15. MAX186/MAX188 Unipolar Transfer Function,
4.096V = Full Scale
Figure 16. MAX186/MAX188 Bipolar Transfer Function,
±4.096V/2 = Full Scale
E Km u f j i b V _ Egg
High-Speed Digital Interfacing with QSPI
The MAX186/MAX188 can interface with QSPI at high
throughput rates using the circuit in Figure 19. This
QSPI circuit can be programmed to do a conversion on
each of the eight channels. The result is stored in mem-
ory without taxing the CPU since QSPI incorporates its
own micro-sequencer. Figure 19 depicts the MAX186,
but the same circuit could be used with the MAX188 by
adding an external reference to VREF and connecting
REFADJ to VDD.
Figure 20 details the code that sets up QSPI for
autonomous operation. In external clock mode, the
MAX186/MAX188 perform a single-ended, unipolar con-
version on each of their eight analog input channels.
Figure 21, QSPI Assembly-Code Timing, shows the tim-
ing associated with the assembly code of Figure 20. The
first byte clocked into the MAX186/MAX188 is the control
byte, which triggers the first conversion on CH0. The last
two bytes clocked into the MAX186/MAX188 are all zero
and clock out the results of the CH7 conversion.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
20 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
+5V -5V GND
SUPPLIES
DGND+5VDGNDVSS
AGNDVDD
DIGITAL
CIRCUITRY
MAX186/MAX188
R* = 10Ω
* OPTIONAL
Figure 18. Power-Supply Grounding Connection
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
MAX186
CH0
+
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH7
VSS
SHDN
VDD
SCLK
CS
DIN
SSTRB
DOUT
DGND
AGND
REFADJ
VREF
VDDI, VDDE, VDDSYN, VSTBY
SCK
PCS0
MOSI
MISO
* CLOCK CONNECTIONS NOT SHOWN
VSSI VSSE
MC68HC16
0.1μF 4.7μF
0.01μF
0.1μF4.7μF
ANALOG
INPUTS
+5V
+
1
Figure 19. MAX186 QSPI Connection
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 21
MAX186/MAX188
*Title : MAX186.ASM
* Description :
* This is a shell program for using a stand-alone 68HC16 without any external memory. The internal 1K RAM
* is put into bank $0F to maintain 68HC11 code compatibility. This program was written with software
* provided in the Motorola 68HC16 Evaluation Kit.
*
* Roger J.A. Chen, Applications Engineer
* MAXIM Integrated Products
* November 20, 1992
*
******************************************************************************************************************************************************
INCLUDE ‘EQUATES.ASM’ ;Equates for common reg addrs
INCLUDE ‘ORG00000.ASM’ ;initialize reset vector
INCLUDE ‘ORG00008.ASM’ ;initialize interrupt vectors
ORG $0200 ;start program after interrupt vectors
INCLUDE ‘INITSYS.ASM’ ;set EK=F,XK=0,YK=0,ZK=0
;set sys clock at 16.78 MHz, COP off
INCLUDE ‘INITRAM.ASM’ ;turn on internal SRAM at $10000
;set stack (SK=1, SP=03FE)
MAIN:
JSR INITQSPI
MAINLOOP:
JSR READ186
WAIT:
LDAA SPSR
ANDA #$80
BEQ WAIT ;wait for QSPI to finish
BRA MAINLOOP
ENDPROGRAM:
INITQSPI:
;This routine sets up the QSPI microsequencer to operate on its own.
;The sequencer will read all eight channels of a MAX186/MAX188 each time
;it is triggered. The A/D converter results will be left in the
;receive data RAM. Each 16 bit receive data RAM location will
;have a leading zero, 12 bits of conversion result and three zeros.
;
;Receive RAM Bits 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00
;A/D Result 0 MSB LSB 0 0 0
***** Initialize the QSPI Registers ******
PSHA
PSHB
LDAA #%01111000
STAA QPDR ;idle state for PCS0-3 = high
LDAA #%01111011
STAA QPAR ;assign port D to be QSPI
LDAA #%01111110
STAA QDDR ;only MISO is an input
LDD #$8008
STD SPCR0 ;master mode,16 bits/transfer,
;CPOL=CPHA=0,1MHz Ser Clock
LDD #$0000
STD SPCR1 ;set delay between PCS0 and SCK,
Figure 20. MAX186/MAX188 Assembly-Code Listing
;set delay between transfers
LDD #$0800
STD SPCR2 ;set ENDQP to $8 for 9 transfers
***** Initialize QSPI Command RAM *****
LDAA #$80 ;CONT=1,BITSE=0,DT=0,DSCK=0,PCS0=ACTIVE
STAA $FD40 ;store first byte in COMMAND RAM
LDAA #$C0 ;CONT=1,BITSE=1,DT=0,DSCK=0,PCS0=ACTIVE
STAA $FD41
STAA $FD42
STAA $FD43
STAA $FD44
STAA $FD45
STAA $FD46
STAA $FD47
LDAA #$40 ;CONT=0,BITSE=1,DT=0,DSCK=0,PCS0=ACTIVE
STAA $FD48
***** Initialize QSPI Transmit RAM *****
LDD #$008F
STD $FD20
LDD #$00CF
STD $FD22
LDD #$009F
STD $FD24
LDD #$00DF
STD $FD26
LDD #$00AF
STD $FD28
LDD #$00EF
STD $FD2A
LDD #$00BF
STD $FD2C
LDD #$00FF
STD $FD2E
LDD #$0000
STD $FD30
PULB
PULA
RTS
READ186:
;This routine triggers the QSPI microsequencer to autonomously
;trigger conversions on all 8 channels of the MAX186. Each
;conversion result is stored in the receive data RAM.
PSHA
LDAA #$80
ORAA SPCR1
STAA SPCR1 ;just set SPE
PULA
RTS
***** Interrupts/Exceptions *****
BDM: BGND ;exception vectors point here
;and put the user in background debug mode
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
22 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
Figure 20. MAX186/MAX188 Assembly-Code Listing (continued)
2) The MAXTBG/MAX188 K is driven low by the XF, l/O port of the TMSSZO to enable data to be clocked into DlN of the MAXlSG/MAXlBB, 3) Ah 8-bIt word (lXXXXXll) should be written to the MAXlBG/MAXlBEs to Inmate a conversion and place the device Into external clock mode Refer to Table 2 to select the proper XXXXX bit values lor your spe- cIfIc application, 4) The SSTRB output 01 the MAXlSG/MAXlSB is mom- tored Via the FSR input of the TMSBZO. A fallmg edge on the SSTRB output Indicates that the conver- SlOfl lS Irr progress and data lS ready to be received from the MAXTBG/MAX188 Maxim Integrated
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
Maxim Integrated 23
MAX186/MAX188
TMS320C3x to MAX186 Interface
Figure 22 shows an application circuit to interface the
MAX186/MAX188 to the TMS320 in external clock
mode. The timing diagram for this interface circuit is
shown in Figure 23.
Use the following steps to initiate a conversion in the
MAX186/MAX188 and to read the results:
1) The TMS320 should be configured with CLKX (trans-
mit clock) as an active-high output clock and CLKR
(TMS320 receive clock) as an active-high input clock.
CLKX and CLKR of the TMS320 are connected
together with the SCLK input of the MAX186/MAX188.
2) The MAX186/MAX188 CS is driven low by the XF_
I/O port of the TMS320 to enable data to be clocked
into DIN of the MAX186/MAX188.
3) An 8-bit word (1XXXXX11) should be written to the
MAX186/MAX188 to initiate a conversion and place
the device into external clock mode. Refer to Table
2 to select the proper XXXXX bit values for your spe-
cific application.
4) The SSTRB output of the MAX186/MAX188 is moni-
tored via the FSR input of the TMS320. A falling
edge on the SSTRB output indicates that the conver-
sion is in progress and data is ready to be received
from the MAX186/MAX188.
XF
CLKX
CLKR
DX
DR
FSR
CS
SCLK
DIN
DOUT
SSTRB
TMS320C3x MAX186
MAX188
Figure 22. MAX186/MAX188 to TMS320 Serial Interface
• • • •
• • • •
• • • •
• • • •
CS
SCLK
SSTRB
DIN
Figure 21. QSPI Assembly-Code Timing
5) The TMS320 reads in one data bit on each of the
next 16 rising edges of SCLK. These data bits rep-
resent the 12-bit conversion result followed by four
trailing bits, which should be ignored.
6) Pull CS high to disable the MAX186/MAX188 until
the next conversion is initiated.
J J f V "W .‘HH J: Substrate connemed 10 VDD 24 Chip Information pnnts) go to www.maximinlegraledxomlpackages 21-0043 21-0042 91-0108 21-0056 91-0094
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
24 Maxim Integrated
MAX186/MAX188
_Ordering Information (continued)
CS
SCLK
DIN
SSTRB
DOUT
START SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/BIP SGL/DIF PD1 PD0
MSB B10 B1 LSB HIGH
IMPEDANCE
HIGH
IMPEDANCE
Figure 23. TMS320 Serial Interface Timing Diagram
Chip Information
Substrate connected to VDD
VDD
I/O
SCK (SK)*
MOSI (SO)
MISO (SI)
VSS
SHDN
SSTRB
DOUT
DIN
SCLK
CS
VSS
AGND
DGND
VDD
REFADJ
CH7
C3
0.1μF
C4
0.1μF
CH0
+5V
C2
0.01μF
0V to
4.096V
ANALOG
INPUTS
MAX186 CPU
C1
4.7μF
VREF
__________Typical Operating Circuit
Parts are offered in grades A, B, C and D (grades defined in
Electrical Characteristics). When ordering, please specify grade.
Contact factory for availability of A-grade in SSOP package.
*
Dice are specified at +25°C, DC parameters only.
+
Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
PART TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
MAX188_CPP+ 0°C to +70°C 20 PDIP
MAX188_CWP+ 0°C to +70°C 20 SO
MAX188_CAP+ C to +70°C 20 SSOP
MAX188DC/D 0°C to +70°C Dice*
MAX188_EPP+ -40°C to +8C 20 PDIP
MAX188_EWP+ -40°C to +8C 20 SO
MAX188_EAP+ -40°C to +8C 20 SSOP
PART TEMP RANGE BOARD TYPE
MAX186EVKIT-DIP C to +70°C Through-Hole
Package Information
For the latest package outline information and land patterns (foot-
prints), go to www.maximintegrated.com/packages. Note that a
“+”, “#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status only.
Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but the
drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status.
PACKAGE
TYPE
PACKAGE
CODE
OUTLINE
NO.
LAND
PATTERN NO.
20 PDIP P20+3 21-0043
20 SO W20+3 21-0042 91-0108
20 SSOP A20+1 21-0056 91-0094
maxim Integrated
Maxim Integrated cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim Integrated product. No circuit patent
licenses are implied. Maxim Integrated reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. The parametric values (min and
max limits) shown in the Electrical Characteristics table are guaranteed. Other parametric values quoted in this data sheet are provided for guidance.
Maxim Integrated 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134 USA 1-408-601-1000
25
© 2012 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. Maxim Integrated and the Maxim Integrated logo are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
Low-Power, 8-Channel,
Serial 12-Bit ADCs
MAX186/MAX188
Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE DESCRIPTION PAGES
CHANGED
0 3/93 Initial release
5 1/12 Updated the Ordering Information and Electrical Characteristics. 1, 3, 18

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