Aluminum - Polymer Capacitors
Aluminum polymer capacitors, like their standard electrolytic counterparts, are a polarized capacitor type based on an aluminum electrode material with an aluminum oxide dielectric, but distinguished from them by their use of a conductive polymer material instead of traditional fluid electrolytes. Relative to standard aluminum electrolytic capacitors, polymer types tend to exhibit improved electrical performance in exchange for higher cost and greater sensitivity to the operating environment.
Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors
A capacitor is a passive electronic device that stores electric charge. Polarized aluminum electrolytic capacitors have an anode electrode (+) made of pure aluminum foil, electrolyte that acts as the cathode, and a thin insulating layer of aluminum oxide that acts as the dielectric. Electrolytic capacitors have higher capacitance-voltage (CV) product per unit volume than ceramic capacitors or film capacitors. Applications include audio, automotive, bypass, decoupling, and motor starting capacitors.
Capacitor Networks, Arrays
Capacitor networks or arrays are devices of two or more capacitors in a single surface, through-hole or chassis mount package. The capacitors may be isolated from each other or connected in a bussed circuit type. Single or multiple capacitance values range from 10 pf to 80 µf and 5% to 20% tolerance. Dielectric materials include ceramic, metallized polymer and polypropylene in 6.3 to 440 rated operating voltage.
A capacitor is a passive electronic device that stores electric charge. Ceramic capacitors consist of two or more alternating layers of ceramic material as the dielectric and metal layers acting as the non-polarized electrodes. Applications include automotive, bypass, decoupling, filtering, RF, and ESD protection. Through-hole versions are often disc or "blob" shaped with two wire leads.
Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC), Supercapacitors
Electric double layer capacitors and supercapacitors are a class of electrolytic (polarized) capacitors that offer exceptionally high capacitance values in relation to their physical size and low voltage ratings; individual devices have ratings of a few volts at most, though products incorporating numerous series-connected devices to achieve higher voltage ratings are available. Exhibiting losses that are generally high by standards of other electrolytic capacitors yet low in comparison to electrochemical cells, they are often used as alternatives to the latter in applications requiring high cycle counts or power density.
Film capacitors are based on the use of plastic film materials as a dielectric. An electrostatic (non-polarized) capacitor type having generally favorable parameter stability and loss characteristics relative to other types, a wide variety of construction and material variations exist that allow film capacitors to be adapted for a wide range of purposes, ranging from small-signal applications in which ceramics are competitive to power applications where electrolytics are the likely alternative.
Niobium Oxide Capacitors
Niobium oxide capacitors are an electrolytic (polarized) capacitor type incorporating oxides of niobium as anode and dielectric materials, with a manganese oxide cathode system. Developed in response to a tantalum shortage, their properties and behaviors are similar to conventional Ta-MnO2 capacitors, with a narrower range of available capacitance and voltage values and a greatly reduced likelihood of device failure resulting in ignition.
Tantalum - Polymer Capacitors
Tantalum polymer capacitors are a polarized capacitor type distinguished by their use of a conductive polymer anode material, instead of the manganese dioxide traditionally used for other dry tantalum devices. While their cost tends to be higher, they also generally exhibit better electrical performance compared to traditional Ta-MnO2 device construction, along with a more benign failure mode that simplifies application considerations.
A capacitor is a passive electronic device that stores electric charge. Tantalum capacitors have an anode electrode (+) made of tantalum metal, electrolyte that acts as the cathode, and a thin insulating layer of tantalum oxide that acts as the dielectric. Tantalum capacitors have high capacitance-voltage (CV) product per unit volume at low weights and are known for high reliability.
Thin Film Capacitors
Thin Film Capacitors are a two pad device for storing a charge of electricity. These devices are composed of thin film layers deposited on a substrate and separated by a dielectric. They range in capacitance of 0.05 pF to 500 mF with a voltage of 2.5 V to 100 V and come in a package size of 0201 to 1210 with a tolerance of ±0.01 pF to ±5%.
Trimmers, Variable Capacitors
Trimmer and variable capacitors are a group of devices that provide a capacitance that is user-adjustable within some specified, relatively narrow range. Devices covering capacitance ranges of a few picofarads to a few nanofarads are commonly available, with voltage ratings from the tens of volts into the kilovolts. Typically used for calibration, tuning, and matching applications, their relatively high cost and potential for maladjustment recommends the use of fixed value devices where feasible.