i.MX28 Layout Guidelines Datasheet by Rochester Electronics, LLC

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Fre o o '0 :" freescalew semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor
Application Note
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2009. All rights reserved.
This application note describes proper design, placement,
and PCB routing techniques for the i.MX28 processor.
Document Number: AN4215
Rev. 0, 09/2010
CONTENTS
1. PCB Stack-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. PCB Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. PMU and DC-DC Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4. Analog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. DRAM Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. SD/MMC/SDIO Card and SPI interfaces . . . . . . . . . 12
7. USB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8. Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. ESD and Radiated Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10. Industrial Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11. 2-Layer Escape Routing Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12. Optimizing for Low-Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
13. Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
2Freescale Semiconductor
PCB Stack-up
1 PCB Stack-up
At minimum, the PCB should use a 4 or 6 layer stack-up. An 8 layer board may be required for extremely
dense PCBs that have multiple DRAM components. The 4 and 6 layer PCB stack-ups below keep a GND
plane adjacent to the power planes as well as the i.MX28 processor. This increases the capacitance and
reduces the gap between the GND and power planes. It will also ensure the signals on the top layer have
a solid GND reference plane and reduces the GND via impedance between the i.MX28 processor and GND
plane. This helps to reduce PCB and i.MX28 processor radiated emissions. The 6 layer PCB stack-up has
an additional solid ground plane on layer 5. This further improves the radiated emissions performance of
the PCB by ensuring all PCB layers have an adjacent GND reference plane.
Recommended 4 layer PCB stack-up:
Layer 1 (Top) - i.MX28 location - signal + ground plane fill
Layer 2 (Inner1) - complete ground plane, no signal traces
Layer 3 (Inner2) - power planes + few signal traces if necessary
Layer 4 (Bottom) - signal + ground plane fill
Recommended 6 Layer PCB stack-up
Layer 1 (Top) - i.MX28 location - signal + ground plane fill
Layer 2 (Inner1) - complete ground plane, no signal traces
Layer 3 (Inner2) - power plane + few signal traces if necessary
Layer 4 (Inner3) - signal
Layer 5 (Inner4) - complete ground plane, no signal traces
Layer 6 (bottom) - signal + ground plane fill
2PCB Planes
2.1 Ground Plane
Use at least one internal ground plane. It is recommend to use a solid ground plane without splits for analog
and digital GND planes. This allows for a continuous GND plane and helps to avoid radiated emissions,
ESD, and noise problems that result from signal traces crossing plane splits.
2.2 Power Planes
Split the power plane layer into separate VDDD (digital core), VDDA (analog supply), and VDDIO
(digital I/O supply) power planes. The example layout below shows a VDDD and VDDIO plane split.
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i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor 3
PMU and DC-DC Converter
2.3 Chassis Ground Ring
Create a chassis ground ring connecting the entire perimeter of the PCB. The purpose of this is to improve
ESD performance and help reduce radiated emissions. The chassis ground ring should be a minimum of
1.27 mm (50 mils) wide, if possible, and be routed on all layers with the rings stitched together with GND
vias. On top and bottom layers the solder mask should be cleared from the ground ring as shown below.
3 PMU and DC-DC Converter
The i.MX28 processor has an integrated power management unit (PMU) that includes a multi-channel
output DCDC converter. This section describes the important layout considerations for the PMU.
3.1 Vias
Use at least two ground vias immediately next to the DCDC_GND pin. The DCDC_GND pin
switches large amounts of current at a high frequency; decreasing the impedance to the ground
plane reduces DCDC converter noise and increases stability.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
4Freescale Semiconductor
PMU and DC-DC Converter
Make sure the DCDC_GND pin has a good low impedance connection to the other i.MX28 ground
pins. If a voltage difference is created between the DCDC_GND pin and the other i.MX28 VSS
pins, the system may be more susceptible to ESD failure.
The power inductor traces should be 15-20 mils thick and should not use vias. If for some reason
the power inductor cannot be placed on the same side of the PCB as the i.MX28, then multiple vias
should be used to connect the inductor to the i.MX28 DC-DC converter pins.
All vias used for the i.MX28 PMU power (VDD) and ground (VSS) pins, including the
DCDC_GND pin, should have a drill hole size of 8 mils or larger to ensure a low
impedance/inductive path between the pin and the PCB power/ground plane.
3.2 Minimize Switching Current Loops
The DCDC converter switching current loop area should be kept as small as possible to reduce the radiated
emissions. There are two switching current loops as shown below. LOOP1: This occurs during the portion
of the duty cycle when the inductor is being charged. LOOP2: This occurs during the flyback portion of
the duty cycle when the inductor is supplying all of the current to the load.
Minimizing the current loop areas can be accomplished by making sure the following layout rules are
followed:
Place the DCDC_BATT pin input capacitors as close as possible to the DCDC_BATT pin (less than
5mm away).
Place the DCDC inductor as close as possible to the DCDC_LP and DCDC_LN pins.
Route the inductor traces close together.
DCDC_BATT
DCDC_GND
DCDC_LP
DCDC_LN1
DCDC_VDDIO
VDDIO
BATTERY
i.MX
LOOP1
DCDC_BATT
DCDC_GND
DCDC_LP
DCDC_LN1
DCDC_VDDIO
VDDIO
BATTERY
i.MX
LOOP2
Current loop during
inductor charging.
Current loop during
inductor discharge.
C}
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor 5
PMU and DC-DC Converter
Place the DCDC output capacitors as close as possible to their respective DCDC output pins (less
than 5mm away): DCDC_VDDIO, DCDC_VDDA, DCDC_VDDD.
Place the ground connections of the DCDC_BATT input capacitors as close as possible to both the
DCDC_GND pin and the ground connections of the DCDC output capacitors.
Place the ground connections of the DCDC output capacitors as close as possible to both the
DCDC_GND pin and the ground connections of the DCDC_BATT pin input capacitors.
The drawing below shows an optimal layout for the top layer placement and routing of the DCDC
converter.
3.3 Battery Connection
Route the positive battery terminal on the power plane layer using a minimum trace width of 30
mils (0.762mm). A thicker trace may be required for longer battery trace runs (using a plane is
best).
Connect the negative battery terminal directly to the ground plane(s) as well as to the top and
bottom ground fill using multiple vias (3 or more).
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i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
6Freescale Semiconductor
Analog
Try placing the negative battery terminal close to the DCDC_GND pin if possible. This will reduce
the length of the DCDC switching current ground return path and reduce overall PCB noise.
4Analog
Place sensitive analog components including the low resolution ADC (LRADC), high speed ADC
(HSADC), crystal circuit, analog audio, etc. in a section of the PCB that is isolated from digital
components and traces.
4.1 Analog-to-Digital Converters
0.01uF capacitors should be placed close to the LRADC input pins and away from digital and
DCDC components and traces.
The LRADC and HSADC traces should be routed adjacent to a ground plane the entire length of
the trace. Crossing plane splits should be avoided. The traces should be routed far away from
digital and DCDC components and traces.
Minimal capacitance, no greater than 0.01uF, should be placed on the HSADC pin due to its high
sample rate; 2Msps with 12 bit resolution. Placing a large amount of capacitance on the HSADC
trace can reduce the accuracy and conversion speed due to limiting the analog signal rate of change.
The HSADC signal must be routed only adjacent to ground planes – above and below if placed on
an internal layer. It should be routed at least 50 mils away from other traces. At least 50mils of
ground shielding on both sides of trace is recommended as shown below.
4.2 Crystal
Place the crystal and load capacitors as close as possible to the XTALI and XTALO pins.
Place the VDD_XTAL capacitor close to the VDD_XTAL pin, and ground the capacitor away from
digital traces.
These rules apply to both the 24.000 MHz and 32.768 kHz crystal circuits. The drawing below
shows an example layout for the 24.000 MHz crystal circuit. In this drawing, all circuit components
are routed on the top layer above a ground plane.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
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DRAM Memory
5 DRAM Memory
5.1 DRAM supply de-coupling
Each i.MX28 EMI supply pin and DRAM memory supply pin must have its own via. The via must
connect to a broad power plane which has (if possible) capacitors for each via. The more capacitors
the better.
One of the most critical issues is not the signal timing. It is power and/or GND bounce or noise due
to poorly supplied i.MX DRAM supply pins and/or DRAM memory supply pins. Something as
simple as the layout engineer using too few vias to connect the supply pins may cause the DRAM
memory interface to fail.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
8Freescale Semiconductor
DRAM Memory
Vias can be strategically placed to create channels for the supply bypass capacitors to be placed
underneath the i.MX28 processor and close to the EMI supply pins as shown below:
5.2 Routing
The guidelines below mainly focus on DDR2 routing (including low voltage,1.5V, DDR2). However, most
of the these guidelines also apply to mDDR.
Summary of key signal groups:
Address/Command (Ax, BAx, RAS#, CAS#, WE#)
Single ended, parallel, terminated to VTT, registered on rising edge of clock.
Control (CS#, CKE, ODT)
Single ended, parallel, terminated to VTT, registered on rising edge of clock.
Each bank has its own control signal (less loading).
Clocks (CLK, CLK#)
Differential, terminated on die with ODT.
Data mask (DQMx)
Single ended input, terminated on die with ODT.
One data mask for each byte lane.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
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DRAM Memory
Data (DQx)
Single ended, bi-directional, synchronized to data strobes, terminated on die with ODT.
Registered on rising and falling edges of data strobe.
Data Strobes (DQSx)
Differential, bi-directional, terminated on die with ODT.
One differential pair for each byte lane.
Signal group layout guidelines:
• DQS/DQ/DQM
A data group (DQ) has an associated strobe (DQS) and data mask (DQM).
All DQS/DQ/DQM groups should be length matched as closely as possible given layout and
placem en t co n straints to minimize skew within the group and across the channel.
Overall length mismatch between byte lanes should be less than 500 mils.
Use a wide trace / plane if possible for VREF.
Address and Command signals
Should be length matched to each other within 200 mils.
Traces routed with a 50-60 ohms single ended impedance.
Data signals (DQx)
All data signals within a byte lane length must be matched to within 100 mils of each other (the
closer the matching, the better).
Lengths must be matched within 100 mils of the corresponding data strobes (the closer the
matching, the better).
Traces routed with a 50-60 ohms single ended impedance.
Data strobes (DQSx)
1 per byte lane.
Clock pair length should be matched within 25 mils.
Length must be matched within 100 mils of the corresponding data byte lane (the closer the
matching, the better).
100 ohm +/- 10% differential impedance, 50-60 ohms single ended impedance on the
individual traces.
Data masks (DQMx)
1 per byte lane.
Length must be matched within 100 mils of the corresponding data byte lane (the closer the
matching, the better).
Traces routed with a 50-60 ohms single ended impedance.
DRAM clock (EMI_CLK / EMI_CLKn)
Clock pair lengths should be matched within 25 mils.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
10 Freescale Semiconductor
DRAM Memory
100 ohm +/- 10% differential impedance, 50-60 ohms single ended impedance on the
individual traces.
During a write cycle, the i.MX28 must satisfy the timing specs between DQS and CK to
facilitate the reliable transfer of data. To satisfy the clock to strobe (DQS) relationship, it is
preferable that the clock length be between the shortest and longest strobe lengths.
EMI_DDR_OPEN and EMI_DDR_OPEN_FB
These pins are specific to the i.MX28 DRAM memory controller and must be connected
together. The total routed length from one pin to the other needs to be the following:
CLK routed distance + DQS routed distance
Other important guidelines:
The DRAM DATA, DQM (data mask) and DQS (strobe) signals should use the same number of
vias and route on the same layers and number of layers.
Matching the numbers of vias and layers used is more important than matching the trace length.
Route all DRAM traces over a solid GND plane with no discontinuities or plane splits on the layers
adjacent to the DRAM traces (both above and below). It is important that the board designer
provide these signals with a solid reference plane to control the characteristic impedance and
provide a smaller loop area between the signals and the return currents. The EMI/DRAM power
plane can also be used as the reference/return plane, but the GND plane is preferred and has the
quietest return path for the signals.
Isolate and protect the VREF trace/plane from noise.
Keep data groups away from address and control signal lines to avoid cross talk.
DRAM traces should be routed at short as possible to reduce trace capacitance and minimize
reflections.
5.3 Minimizing Reflections
If possible, keep the DRAM DATA, DQM, STROBE, and CLOCK traces short enough so that a maximum
of 30% of the edge appears on the trace. To put it in equation form:
Trace Length <= (0.3 x Rise/Fall Time x 15 cm/ns).
The speed of a signal edge travelling from sender to receiver on widely used FR4 material is about 1/5 the
speed of light (or 15 cm/ns).
The full reflection occurs if the time for an edge travelling from sender (i.MX) to receiver (DRAM) is >=
the rise/fall time of the signal. Example:
If the rise/fall time = 0.5ns and trace length = 7.5cm, the receiver still sees zero volts even though
the sender is now driving at the maximum DRAM supply voltage. Because the full edge is now on
the line, full reflection occurs.
So for this example, the signal traces should not exceed 2.25cm (30% of 7.5cm). This is valid for
the distance between one sender and one receiver.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor 11
DRAM Memory
Note that this example calculation is for a point-to-point connection. If more than 1 memory device is
connected to the bus, the rise / fall time will be slower and the trace length may be longer.
Control signals like CS, ADDRESS, RAS, CAS, and WE are not critical and can be routed without these
constraints.
5.4 Routing to Multiple DRAM Devices
In terminated systems, “daisy chain” routing is recommended because the impedance can be
matched along the whole trace. In non-terminated systems, Y routing is much better because it
makes the trace lengths shorter, which reduces the capacitive loading.
For 2 external DRAM components, pin swapping the data signals within a byte lane can be
performed to improve/optimize routing. This is particularly useful when the one DRAM is placed
on the top side of the board and the other is placed on the bottom side.
5.5 Layout Examples
The i.MX28 processor EMI pin locations have been optimized to facilitate single layer DRAM signal
routing. The layout example below shows an ideal fan-out between the i.MX28 processor and a DDR2
memory device where nearly all the routing is accomplished on a signal layer. The routing can be achieved
with low cost PCB manufacturing using 5 mils trace/space and 8/16 through-hole vias. Note that this
layout shows fan-out only, differential pair routing is not complete, and does not include length matching.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
12 Freescale Semiconductor
SD/MMC/SDIO Card and SPI interfaces
Another good example layout that can be followed is the i.MX28 EVK (evaluation kit) PCB. The PCB
layout source files can be downloaded from the Freescale i.MX28 support webpage. The image below
shows the bottom layer routing of the DDR2 interface. The key item to notice is that all the DDR2 traces
are routed entirely above a solid ground plane (green background) and do not cross any plane splits or other
traces.
6 SD/MMC/SDIO Card and SPI interfaces
This SDIO and SPI interfaces are serial data in/out interfaces. The SDIO interface consists of clock and
command signal lines and up to 8 data lines. The SPI interface consists of a clock line and up to 4 data
lines (for quad I/O SPI). These interfaces can be high speed, 50MHz or higher, and double data rate for the
eMMC4.4 standard. Because of this, is it important to follow these layout guidelines.
Trace capacitance should be minimized.
Avoid crossing plane splits as this will degrade signal integrity and increase radiated emissions.
Trace length matching may be beneficial in some cases where the trace length routing is long (>3
inches).
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i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor 13
USB
Any external pull-up resistors should be placed close to the signal trace to minimize stubs and stray
capacitance as shown below.
7USB
USB signal lines should be routed on top or bottom layers to allow for tight control of 90 ohm
differential impedance requirement.
Maintain parallelism between USB differential signals needed to achieve 90ohms differential
impedance between D+ and D- for the entire routed length. Slight deviations from this will
normally occur due to package, USB jack footprints, and routing to connector pins. The number
and length of the deviations should be kept to a minimum.
Use an impedance calculator to determine the trace width and spacing required for the specific
board stack up and material being used. This should also be verified with the PCB manufacturer
before routing is finalized.
Minimize the length of high-speed clock and periodic signal traces that run parallel to the USB
signal lines to minimize crosstalk. High speed and periodic signals should be kept at least 50 mils
away from USB D+/D-.
All other signals should be kept at least 20 mils away from the high-speed USB signal pairs to help
prevent crosstalk.
7.1 Common USB Routing Mistakes
Stubs - Avoid creating unnecessary stubs by placing any component footprints over the path of the
D+/D- traces. If a stub is unavoidable in the design, no stub should be greater than 200 mils in
length.
Crossing a plane split - The USB data lines should never cross a power or ground plane split. This
causes unpredictable return path currents, which can cause signal quality failures as well as EMI
problems.
Failure to maintain parallelism – Failing to maintain parallelism will cause impedance
discontinuities that will directly affect signal quality. It also contributes to the trace-length
mismatch and will cause an increase in signal skew.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
14 Freescale Semiconductor
Ethernet
8Ethernet
8.1 Component Placement
If the magnetic is a discrete component, then it should be placed no greater than 1 inch away from
the ethernet jack.
The distance between the ethernet PHY and the magnetics should be 25mm (1 in.) or greater. The
1 in. design rule is considered good design practice among PHY vendors to isolate the PHY from
the magnetics.
Keep the PHY device and the differential TX/RX pairs at least 1 inch from the edge of the PCB,
up to the magnetics. For an integrated magnetics ethernet jack, the differential pairs should be
routed to the back of the integrated jack, away from the board edge.
The 49.9 ohm pull-up resistors on RX/TX should be placed within 400 mils of the ethernet PHY
and should be placed next to the RX/TX pairs to minimize stubs. This also ensures similar RX/TX
transmit paths.
8.2 Ethernet Clock
In RMII mode, the i.MX28 processor supplies the 50MHz ethernet clock signal to the ethernet PHY. This
signal must be routed very carefully due to its high speed. Poor layout of this signal can cause ethernet
PHY clocking issues. To prevent any issues, follow these guidelines:
Minimize trace length. This will help to minimize trace capacitance, which can slow the edge rates
of the ethernet clock. It will also minimize the chances of picking up noise from other source on
the PCB such as high speed digital traces or current switching power planes/traces.
Route the clock in isolation away from other traces and noise sources.
Must be routed over a continuous ground plane. It should not be routed across any plane splits or
traces on adjacent layers.
8.3 Ethernet TX and RX pairs between the ethernet PHY and the
magnetics
Must be routed with 100 ohm differential impedance and 50 ohm single ended impedance.
Must be routed over a solid ground plane to maintain a controlled impedance over the entire trace
route.
Trace lengths for each pair should be matched.
Use a minimum distance of 30 mils between TX and RX pairs.
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i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor 15
Ethernet
8.4 Ethernet Jacks and Magnetics:
Discrete magnetics module
If using a discrete magnetics module, a ground plane must not be placed under the magnetics,
the RJ45 connector, or the area between the magnetics and RJ45 connector.
A ground plane should be placed underneath the RX and TX pairs between the ethernet PHY
and magnetics module as shown below.
RJ45 Jack with integrated magnetics
use. Dal-I 6ND
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
16 Freescale Semiconductor
ESD and Radiated Emissions
A ground plane should be placed under the TX/RX pairs between the ethernet PHY and
integrated RJ45 jack.
A separate ethernet chassis ground should be placed under the RJ45 jack.
The chassis ground should be connected to the rest of the PCB GND with capacitor stuffing
options, which is useful for determining which values and location will provide the best EMI
performance.
An example drawing is shown below.
9 ESD and Radiated Emissions
Ideally, the PCB design should use 6 or more layers, with solid power and ground planes. With 4
layers, ESD immunity and radiated emissions performance may be compromised.
All components with ground chassis shields (USB jack, buttons, etc.) should connect the shield to
the PCB chassis ground ring.
Ferrite beads should be placed on each signal line connecting to an external cable (except for USB
- see below). These ferrite beads must be placed as close to the PCB jack as possible.
Ferrite beads should NOT be placed on the USB D+/D- signal lines as this can cause USB signal
integrity problems. For radiated emissions problems due to USB, a common mode choke may be
placed on the D+/D- signal lines. However, in most cases, it should not be required if the PCB
layout is satisfactory. Ideally, the common mode choke should be approved for high speed USB
use or tested thoroughly to verify there are no signal integrity issues created.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor 17
Industrial Design
It is preferred that ferrite beads should have a minimum impedance of 500 ohms @ 100MHz with
the exception of the ferrite on USB_5V.
10 Industrial Design
The recommendations below are aimed at improving the system ESD performance.
Buttons or switches on the housing should be non-conductive.
The USB jack should be covered by a non-conductive case or rubber plug.
If metal or conductive player housings are used, they should be designed to allow equal charge
distribution on all sides of the PCB.
Air gaps between buttons and the housing should be kept as small as possible.
11 2-Layer Escape Routing Example
The i.MX283 family member feature set and pinout is optimized to allow for 2 layer escape routing using
PCB industry standard 5 mil trace/space and 8/16 through-hole vias. This will also allow for 4 layer PCB
designs in most cases depending on other board peripherals. The example layout below shows a 2 layer
escape route. The Allegro source layout file for this escape route is available for download from the
Freescale i.MX28 support web page.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
18 Freescale Semiconductor
Optimizing for Low-Cost
12 Optimizing for Low-Cost
Follow the MX283 2-layer escape routing example above. This example route uses standard 5/5
mil trace/spacing and 8/16 through-hole vias and enables use of a low-cost 4-layer PCB.
13 Revision History
Table 1 provides the revision history for this application note.
Table 1. Document Revision History
Rev.
Number Date Substantive Change(s)
0 09/21/2010 Initial release.
i.MX28 Layout and Design Guidelines, Rev. 0
Freescale Semiconductor 19
Revision History
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o :" freescalew semiconductor
Document Number: AN4215
Rev. 0
09/2010
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