LT5546 Datasheet by Analog Devices Inc.

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L7 I I ’\D LT5546 ECHNOLOGY _| [I _| 9' L7LJL1%
LT5546
1
5546fa
17MHz I/Q Lowpass Output Noise Filters
Wide Range 1.8V to 5.25V Supply Voltage
Frequency Range: 40MHz to 500MHz
THD < 0.14% (–57dBc)
at 800mV
P-P
Differential Output Level
IF Overload Detector
Log Linear Gain Control Range: –7dB to 56dB
Baseband I/Q Amplitude Imbalance: 0.2dB
Baseband I/Q Phase Imbalance: 0.6°
7.8dB Noise Figure at Max Gain
Input IP3 at Low Gain: –1dBm
Low Supply Current: 24mA
Low Delay Shift Over Gain Control Range: 2ps/dB
Outputs Biased Up While in Standby
16-Lead QFN 4mm × 4mm Package with Exposed Pad
40MHz to 500MHz VGA
and I/Q Demodulator with
17MHz Baseband Bandwidth
Total Harmonic Distortion vs
IF Input Level at 1.8V Supply
GPS IF Receivers
Satellite IF Receivers
VHF/UHF Receivers
Wireless Local Loop
2xLO
+
2xLO
IF
+
IF
EN STBY
V
CC
I
OUT+
I
OUT
Q
OUT+
Q
OUT
GND
1.8V
C2
1µF
C1
1nF
C3
1.8pF
STANDBY
2xLO
560MHz
INPUT
280MHz
IF INPUT
C3
10pF
5546 TA01
÷2
LT5546
L1
15nH
L2
15nH
L3
39nH
C5
3.3pF
C4
3.3pF
GAIN CONTROL
ENABLE
IF DET
V
CTRL
The LT
®
5546 is a 40MHz to 500MHz monolithic integrated
quadrature demodulator with variable gain amplifier (VGA)
and 17MHz I/Q baseband bandwidth designed for low volt-
age operation. It supports standards that use a linear modu-
lation format. The chip consists of a VGA, quadrature down-
converting mixers and 17MHz lowpass noise filters (LPF).
The LO port consists of a divide-by-two stage and LO
buffers. The IC provides all building blocks for IF down-
conversion to I and Q baseband signals with a single
supply voltage of 1.8V to 5.25V. The VGA gain has a linear-
in-dB relationship to the control input voltage. Hard-clip-
ping amplifiers at the mixer outputs reduce the recovery
time from a signal overload condition. The lowpass filters
reduce the out-of-band noise and spurious frequency
components. The –3dB corner frequency of the noise
filters is approximately 17MHz and has a first order roll-
off. The standby mode provides reduced supply current
and fast transient response into the normal operating mode
when the I/Q outputs are AC-coupled to a baseband chip.
FEATURES
DESCRIPTIO
U
APPLICATIO S
U
TYPICAL APPLICATIO
U
IF INPUT POWER EACH TONE (dBm)
–60
THD (dBc)
–25
–30
–35
–40
–45
–50
–55
–60
–50 –40 –30 –20
5546 TA01b
–10
f
IF, 1
= 280MHz
f
IF, 2
= 280.1MHz
f
2xLO
= 570MHz
800mV
P-P
DIFFERENTIAL OUT
, LTC and LT are registered trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
L7LJUEAR
LT5546
2
5546fa
Supply Voltage ....................................................... 5.5V
Differential Voltage Between 2xLO
+
and 2xLO
..........
4V
IF
+
, IF
............................................. 500mV to 500mV
I
OUT+
, I
OUT
, Q
OUT+
, Q
OUT
..................V
CC
– 1.8V to V
CC
Operating Ambient Temperature
(Note 2) ...................................................40°C to 85°C
Storage Temperature Range ..................65°C to 125°C
Voltage on Any Pin
Not to Exceed ........................ –500mV to V
CC
+ 500mV
ORDER PART
NUMBER
T
JMAX
= 125°C, θ
JA
= 37°C/W
EXPOSED PAD IS GND (PIN 17)
(MUST BE SOLDERED TO PCB)
LT5546EUF
ABSOLUTE AXI U RATI GS
W
WW
U
PACKAGE/ORDER I FOR ATIO
UUW
(Note 1)
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
VCC = 3V, f2xLO = 570MHz, P2xLO = –5dBm (Note 5), fIF = 284MHz,
PIF = –30dBm, I and Q outputs 800mVP-P into 4k differential load, TA = 25°C, EN = VCC, STBY = VCC, unless otherwise noted. (Note 3)
Consult LTC Marketing for parts specified with wider operating temperature ranges.
16 15 14 13
5678
TOP VIEW
UF PACKAGE
16-LEAD (4mm × 4mm) PLASTIC QFN
9
10
11
12
4
3
2
1GND
IF+
IF
GND
STBY
2xLO+
2xLO
EN
IOUT+
IOUT
QOUT+
QOUT
VCC
VCTRL
IF DET
VCC
17
SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
IF Input
f
IF
Frequency Range 40 to 500 MHz
Nominal Input Level R
SOURCE
= 200 Differential 76 to –19 dBm
Input Impedance IF
+
, IF
to GND, EN = V
CC
100//1.2pF
IF
+
, IF
to GND, EN = GND 1pF
NF Noise Figure at Max Gain V
CTRL
= 1.7V 7.8 dB
G
L
Min Gain (Note 4) V
CTRL
= 0.2V 1.6 6 dB
G
H
Max Gain (Note 4) V
CTRL
= 1.7V 49 56 dB
IIP3 Input IP3, Min Gain P
IF
= –22.5dBm (Note 7) 1 dBm
Input IP3, Max Gain P
IF
= –75dBm (Note 7) 49 dBm
IIP2 Input IP2, Min Gain V
CTRL
= 0.2V (Note 9) 36 dBm
Input IP2, Max Gain V
CTRL
= 1.7V (Note 9) –25 dBm
Demodulator I/Q Output
Nominal Voltage Swing (Note 6) 0.8 V
P-P
Clipping Level (Note 6) 1.47 V
P-P
DC Common Mode Voltage V
CC
– 1.19 V
I/Q Amplitude Imbalance (Note 8) 0.14 0.6 dB
I/Q Phase Imbalance (Note 8) 0.6 3 Deg
DC Offset (Notes 6, 8) 21 mV
Output Driving Capability Single Ended, C
LOAD
10pF 2 1.5 k
r
o
Small-Signal Output Impedance (Note 6) 180
STBY to Turn-On Delay 0.3 µs
I/Q Output 1dB Compression –10 dBm
I/Q Output IM3 P
IF, 1
= –25.5dBm, 280MHz 49 dBc
P
IF, 2
= –25.5dBm, 280.1MHz (Note 7)
UF PART MARKING
5546
L7LJL1%
LT5546
3
5546fa
VCC = 3V, f2×LO = 570MHz, P2×LO = –5dBm (Note 5), fIF = 284MHz,
PIF = –30dBm, I and Q outputs 800mVP-P into 4k differential load, TA = 25°C, EN = VCC, STBY = VCC, unless otherwise noted. (Note 3)
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which the life
of a device may be impaired.
Note 2: Specifications over the –40°C to 85°C temperature range are
assured by design, characterization and correlation with statistical process
controls.
Note 3: Tests are performed as shown in the configuration of Figure 6. The
IF input transformer loss is substracted from the measured values.
Note 4: Power gain is defined here as the I (or Q) output power into a 4k
differential load, divided by the IF input power in dB. To calculate the
voltage gain between the differential I output (or Q output) and the IF
input, including ideal matching network, 10 • log(4k/50) = 19dB has to
be added to this power gain.
Note 5: If a narrow-band match is used in the 2xLO path instead of a 1:2
transformer with 240 shunt resistor, 2xLO input power can be reduced
to –10dBm, without degrading the phase imbalance. See Figure 11 and
Figure 6.
Note 6: Differential between I
OUT+
and I
OUT
(or differential between
Q
OUT+
and Q
OUT
).
Note 7: The gain control voltage V
CTRL
is set in such a way that the
differential output voltage between I
OUT+
and I
OUT
(or differential between
Q
OUT+
and Q
OUT
) is 800mV
P-P
, with the given input power P
IF
. IF
frequencies are 280MHz and 280.1MHz, with f
2xLO
= 570MHz.
Note 8: The typical parameter is defined as the mean of the absolute
values of the data distribution.
Note 9: IF frequency is 125MHz, with f
2xLO
= 502MHz.
SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA)
Gain Slope Linearity Error V
CTRL
= 0V to 1.4V ±0.5 dB
Temperature Gain Shift T = –40°C to 85°C, V
CTRL
= 0V to 1.4V ±0.4 dB
Gain Control Response Time Settled within 10% of Final Value 90 ns
Gain Control Voltage Range 0 to 1.7 V
Gain Control Slope 41 dB/V
Gain Control Input Impedance To Internal 0.2V Reference 25 k
Delay Shift Over Gain Control Measured Over 10dB Step 2 ps/dB
Baseband Lowpass Filter (LPF)
3dB Cutoff Frequency 13 17 MHz
Amplitude Roll-Off at 50MHz –9 dB
Group Delay Ripple 1ns
2xLO Input
f
2xLO
Frequency Range 80 to 1000 MHz
P
2xLO
Input Power 1:2 Transformer with 240 Shunt Resistor (Note 5) 20 5 dBm
Input Power LC Balun (Note 5) 10 dBm
Input Impedance Differential Between 2xLO
+
and 2xLO
800//0.4pF
DC Common Mode Voltage V
CC
– 0.4 V
IF Detector
IF Detector Range Referred to IF Input –30 to 8 dBm
Output Voltage Range For P
IF
= –30dBm to 8dBm 0.27 to 1.2 V
Detector Response Time With External 1.8pF Load, 80 ns
Settling within 10% of Final Value
Power Supply
V
CC
Supply Voltage 1.8 5.25 V
I
CC
Supply Current EN = High, STBY = Low or High 24 34 mA
I
OFF
Shutdown Current EN, STBY < 350mV 0.2 30 µA
I
STBY
Standby Current EN = Low; STBY = High 3.6 6 mA
Mode
Enable Enable Pin Voltage EN = High 1 V
Disable Enable Pin Voltage EN = Low 0.5 V
Standby Standby Pin Voltage STBY = High 1 V
No Standby Standby Pin Voltage STBY = Low 0.5 V
GAIN AND NOISE FIGURE (:18) so 20 In 40 85°C 740’ C / GAIN "vu / g 3/ g z / — GAIN AI I av E f’ — - NF AI I av z I‘ GAIN — GAIN AI 3v g . NrAIav / IIF; 284MHz GAIN. vm IZXLD: 570MHz , 03 05 09 I 2 I 5 I E I0 I00 IU ch IV) IF mmuchv (MHZ) L7LJHEL‘P
LT5546
4
5546fa
Supply Current vs Supply Voltage
Gain and Noise Figure
vs Control Voltage at 3V Supply
Gain and Noise Figure
vs Control Voltage at 1.8V Supply
Gain Flatness
vs Control Voltage at 3V Supply
Gain and Noise Figure
vs Control Voltage and VCC
Gain and Noise Figure
vs IF Frequency at 3V Supply
TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
UW
VCC = 3V, f2×LO = 570MHz, P2×LO = –5dBm
(Note 5), fIF = 284MHz, PIF = –30dBm, I and Q outputs 800mVP-P into 4k differential load, TA = 25°C, EN = VCC, STBY = VCC,
unless otherwise noted. (Note 3)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
1.75
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
28
26
24
22
20 2.25 2.75 3.25 3.75
5546 G01
4.25 4.75 5.25
–40°C
25°C
85°C
V
CTRL
(V)
0
GAIN AND NOISE FIGURE (dB)
1.5
5546 G02
0.6
GAIN
NF
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
–10
0.3 0.9 1.2 1.8
GAIN AT 25°C
NF AT 25°C
GAIN AT –40°C
NF AT –40°C
GAIN AT 85°C
NF AT 85°C
f
IF
= 284MHz
f
2xLO
= 570MHz
VCTRL (V)
0
GAIN AND NOISE FIGURE (dB)
1.5
5546 G03
0.6
GAIN
NF
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
–10
0.3 0.9 1.2 1.8
GAIN AT –40°C
NF AT 25°C
GAIN AT 25°C
NF AT –40°C
GAIN AT 85°C
NF AT 85°C
fIF = 284MHz
f2xLO = 570MHz
V
CTRL
(V)
0
0.5
GAIN DEVIATI0N FROM LINEAR FIT (dB)
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.3 0.6 0.9
5546 G04
1.2
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
1.5
–40°C
85°C
25°C
V
CTRL
(V)
0
GAIN AND NOISE FIGURE (dB)
1.5
5546 G05
0.6
GAIN
NF
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
–10
0.3 0.9 1.2 1.8
GAIN AT 1.8V
NF AT 1.8V
GAIN AT 3V
NF AT 3V
GAIN AT 5.25V
NF AT 5.25V
f
IF
= 284MHz
f
2xLO
= 570MHz
IF FREQUENCY (MHz)
10
–10
0
GAIN AND NOISE FIGURE (dB)
10
20
30
40
60
100 1000
5546 G06
50
GAIN, VCTRL = 1.6V
GAIN, VCTRL = 0.9V
GAIN, VCTRL = 0.2V
NF, VCTRL = 1.6V
NF, VCTRL = 0.9V
NF, VCTRL = 0.2V
auumvp p DlFFERENTlAL OUT F ‘2an : 570MHz THD (new 750 755 760 750 750 7w an 720 F lNPUT POWER EACH TUNE mam) LPF Frequency Response vs Basehand Frequency and Supply Voltage lezs’c MAGNITUDE may 5 25v 0 n 5 mwszuzsanafiwafi BASEBAND FREQUENCV (MHZ) L7LJL1% 50 55 THO mac) IF on 0mm M 5 740 735 730 725 \r lNPUT POWER EACH TONE (mam) IF Detector Outpul Voltage vs IF Inpul CW Power at 3V Supply H ‘2 j m , /’35’C ea 05 V r 740 730 72D 40 u IFlNPUTCWPDWERmBm)
LT5546
5
5546fa
Total Harmonic Distortion
vs IF Input Power at 3V Supply
and 800mVP-P Differential Out
Total Harmonic Distortion
vs IF Input Power and IF
Frequency
Total Harmonic Distortion
vs IF Input Power at 1.8V Supply
and 800mVP-P Differential Out
Total Harmonic Distortion vs IF
Input Power and Supply Voltage
LPF Frequency Response
vs Baseband Frequency
and Temperature
LPF Frequency Response
vs Baseband Frequency and
Supply Voltage
Total Harmonic Distortion
vs IF Input Power at 500mVP-P
Differential Out
IF Detector Output Voltage vs
IF Input CW Power at 3V Supply
IF Detector Output Voltage vs
IF Input CW Power at 1.8V Supply
TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
UW
VCC = 3V, f2×LO = 570MHz, P2×LO = –5dBm
(Note 5), fIF = 284MHz, PIF = –30dBm, I and Q outputs 800mVP-P into 4k differential load, TA = 25°C, EN = VCC, STBY = VCC,
unless otherwise noted. (Note 3)
IF INPUT POWER EACH TONE (dBm)
–60
THD (dBc)
–30
5546 G07
–50 –40 –20 –10
–25
–30
–35
–40
–45
–50
–55
–60
85°C
f
IF,1
= 280MHz
f
IF,2
= 280.1MHz
f
2xLO
= 570MHz
25°C
–40°C
IF INPUT POWER EACH TONE (dBm)
–60
THD (dBc)
–30
5546 G08
–50 –40 –20 –10
–25
–30
–35
–40
–45
–50
–55
–60
f
IF
= 280MHz
f
IF
= 40MHz
800mV
P-P
DIFFERENTIAL OUT
3V SUPPLY
f
IF
= 500MHz
IF INPUT POWER EACH TONE (dBm)
–60
THD (dBc)
–30
5546 G09
–50 –40 –10–20
–25
–30
–35
–40
–45
–50
–55
–60
f
IF,1
= 280MHz
f
IF,2
= 280.1MHz
f
2xLO
= 570MHz
40°C85°C
25°C
IF INPUT POWER EACH TONE (dBm)
–60
THD (dBc)
–30
5546 G10
–50 –40 –20 –10
–25
–30
–35
–40
–45
–50
–55
–60
1.8V 5.25V
800mV
P-P
DIFFERENTIAL OUT
f
IF,1
= 280MHz
f
IF,2
= 280.1MHz
f
2xLO
= 570MHz
3V
IF INPUT POWER EACH TONE (dBm)
THD (dBc)
–65
–60
–55
–50
–45
–40
–35
–30
–25
–20
–40 35 –30
–40°C
25°C85°C
–25
5546 G11
–20
fIF,1 = 280MHz
fIF,2 = 280.1MHz
f2xLO = 570MHz
VCC = 3V
BASEBAND FREQUENCY (MHz)
0
–10
MAGNITUDE (dB)
–8
–9
–6
–5
–7
–4
–2
–1
–3
0
510 15 20 30 40 50
5546 G12
25 35 45 55
VCC = 3V
40°C
85°C
25°C
BASEBAND FREQUENCY (MHz)
0
–10
MAGNITUDE (dB)
–8
–9
–6
–5
–7
–4
–2
–1
–3
0
510 15 20 30 40 50
5546 G13
25 35 45 55
TA = 25°C
1.8V
5.25V
3V
IF INPUT CW POWER (dBm)
–40
0.2
IF DET OUTPUT (V)
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
–30
85°C
–40°C
–20 –10 0
5546 G14
10
25°C
f
IF
= 280MHz
IF INPUT CW POWER (dBm)
–40
0.2
IF DET OUTPUT (V)
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
–30
85°C
–40°C
–20 –10 0
5546 G15
10
25°C
f
IF
= 280MHz
\ IF DET OUTPUT (V) K x a \ N \ \ /’ x .. / / ' I ......./ U2 0 2 740 *SU 720 71D D ID ’40 ’30 *2U *‘U D ID IFINPUTCWPDWERNBM] IFINPUTCW POWER (HEN) Pln FUflCTIOflS GND (Pins 1, 4 and 17): Ground. Pins 1 and 4 are EN (Pin 9): Ena connected to each other internally. The exposed pad (Pin higherthan1V, 17) is not connected internally to Pins 1 and 4. For chip inputvoltage IS functionality, the exposed pad and either Pin 1 or Pin 4 the part of the c must be connected to ground. For best RF performance, 2xL0' 2xL0+ ( Pin 1, Pin 4 and the exposed pad should be connected to 2xL0 Input. The RF ground. ofthe IFfrequen IF+, IF" (Pins 2,3): Differential Inputs for the IF Signal. - Each pin must be DC grounded through an external :Lfizrgzglnfi) inductor or RF transformer with central ground tap. This prebias the I/OY pathshould haveaDC resistance lowerthan 2§2to ground. 0 5V the standb Vcc (Pins 5 and 8): PowerSupply. These pins should be 0 _ 0 +( decoupled to ground using 1000pFand 0.1pF capacitors. {131270} thleUCTJ Ch VcrnL (Pin 6): VGA Gain Control Input. This pin controls the IF gain and its typical input voltage range is 0.2V to 1.7V. It IS internally biased vra a 25k resistor to 0.2V, setting a low gain if the VCTRL pin is left floating. IF DET (Pin 7]: IF Detector Output. For strong IF input srgnals, the DC level at this pin is afunction of the IF input srgnal level. lour‘. Iour+ (Pi of the I Channe 6 LTLJHEAR
LT5546
6
5546fa
IF Detector Output Voltage vs IF
Input CW Power and IF Frequency
IF Detector Output Voltage
vs IF Input CW Power and
Supply Voltage
Phase Relation Between I and Q
Outputs vs LO Input Power
GND (Pins 1, 4 and 17): Ground. Pins 1 and 4 are
connected to each other internally. The exposed pad (Pin
17) is not connected internally to Pins 1 and 4. For chip
functionality, the exposed pad and either Pin 1 or Pin 4
must be connected to ground. For best RF performance,
Pin 1, Pin 4 and the exposed pad should be connected to
RF ground.
IF
+
,
IF
(Pins 2, 3): Differential Inputs for the IF Signal.
Each pin must be DC grounded through an external
inductor or RF transformer with central ground tap. This
path should have a DC resistance lower than 2 to ground.
V
CC
(Pins 5 and 8): Power Supply. These pins should be
decoupled to ground using 1000pF and 0.1µF capacitors.
V
CTRL
(Pin 6): VGA Gain Control Input. This pin controls
the IF gain and its typical input voltage range is 0.2V to
1.7V. It is internally biased via a 25k resistor to 0.2V,
setting a low gain if the V
CTRL
pin is left floating.
IF DET (Pin 7): IF Detector Output. For strong IF input
signals, the DC level at this pin is a function of the IF input
signal level.
EN (Pin 9): Enable Input. When the enable pin voltage is
higher than 1V, the IC is completely turned on. When the
input voltage is less than 0.5V, the IC is turned off, except
the part of the circuit associated with standby mode.
2xLO
,
2xLO
+
(Pins 10, 11): Differential Inputs for the
2xLO Input. The 2xLO input frequency must be twice that
of the IF frequency. The internal bias voltage is V
CC
0.4V.
STBY (Pin 12): Standby Input. When the STBY pin is
higher than 1V, the standby mode circuit is turned on to
prebias the I/Q buffers. When the STBY pin is less than
0.5V, the standby mode circuit is turned off.
Q
OUT
,
Q
OUT+
(Pins 13, 14): Differential Baseband Out-
puts of the Q Channel. Internally biased at V
CC
– 1.19V.
I
OUT
, I
OUT+
(Pins 15, 16): Differential Baseband Outputs
of the I Channel. Internally biased at V
CC
– 1.19V.
UU
U
PI FU CTIO S
TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
UW
VCC = 3V, f2×LO = 570MHz, P2×LO = –5dBm
(Note 5), fIF = 284MHz, PIF = –30dBm, I and Q outputs 800mVP-P into 4k differential load, TA = 25°C, EN = VCC, STBY = VCC,
unless otherwise noted. (Note 3)
IF INPUT CW POWER (dBm)
–40
0.2
IF DET OUTPUT (V)
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
–30 –20 –10 0
5546 G16
10
f
IF
= 280MHz
1.8V
5.25V
3V
IF INPUT CW POWER (dBm)
–40
1.2
1.4
0
5546 G17
1.0
0.8
–30 –20 –10 10
0.6
0.4
0.2
IF DET OUTPUT (V)
V
CC
= 3V f
IF
= 500MHz
f
IF
= 40MHz
f
IF
= 280MHz
LO INPUT POWER (dBm)
–20
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88 –5 5
5546 G18
–15 –10 010
PHASE (DEG)
f
IF
= 284MHz, 25°C
f
IF
= 284MHz, –40°C
f
IF
= 284MHz, 85°C
f
IF
= 40MHz, 25°C
f
IF
= 500MHz, 25°C
V
CC
= 3V
w z ‘5 am 7 mu m saw u Dnur’ mo’ w w svav 5mm L7LJL1% 7
LT5546
7
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BLOCK DIAGRA
W
2×LO
+
2×LO
IF
+
IF
IF DET
EN STBY
I
OUT+
I
OUT
Q
OUT+
Q
OUT
90°
0°
5546 BD
÷2
2
5 8
7
14
13
15
16
3
6
11
10
9 1 4 17 12
V
CTRL
V
CC
V
CC
VGA I-MIXER
Q-MIXER
CLIPPER
CLIPPER
LPF
LPF
DETECTOR
The LT5546 consists of a variable gain amplifier (VGA),
I/Q demodulator, quadrature LO generator, lowpass fil-
ters (LPFs), clipping amplifiers (clippers) and bias cir-
cuitry.
The IF signal is fed to the inputs of the VGA. The VGA gain
is typically set by an external signal in such a way that the
amplified IF signal delivered to the I/Q mixers is constant.
The IF signal is then converted into I/Q baseband signals
using the I/Q down-converting mixers. The quadrature LO
signals that drive the mixers are internally generated from
the on-chip divide-by-two circuit. The I/Q signals are
passed through first-order low-pass filters and subse-
quently a pair of hard-clipping amplifiers (clippers). After
externally setting the required gain, these amplifiers should
not clip. However, in the event of overload, they reduce the
settling time of any (optional) external AC coupling capaci-
tors by preventing asymmetrical charging and discharg-
ing effects. The I/Q baseband outputs are buffered by
output drivers.
VGA and Input Matching
The VGA has a nominal 60dB gain control range with a
frequency range of 40MHz to 500MHz. The inputs of the
VGA must have a DC return to ground. This can be done
using a transformer with a central tap (on the secondary)
or an LC matching circuit with a matched impedance at the
frequency of interest and near zero impedance at DC. The
differential AC input impedance of the LT5546 is about
200, thus a 1:4 (impedance ratio) RF transformer with
center tap can be used. In Figure 6, the evaluation board
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
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schematic is shown using a 1:4 transformer. The mea-
sured input sensitivity of this board is about –80.5dBm for
a 10dB signal-to-noise ratio. In the case of an L-C match-
ing circuit, the circuit of Figure 1 can be used. In Table 1
the matching network component values are given for a
range of IF frequencies. The matching circuit of Figure 1
approaches 180° phase shift between IF
+
and IF
in a
broad range around its center frequency. However, some
amplitude mismatch occurs if the circuit is not tuned to the
center frequency. This leads to reduced circuit linearity
performance, because one of the inputs carries a higher
signal compared to the perfectly balanced case. A 10%
frequency shift from the center frequency results in about
a 2dB gain difference between the IF
+
and IF
inputs. This
results in a 1.5dB higher IM3 contribution from the input
stage which leads to a 0.75dB drop in IIP3. Moreover, the
IIP2 of the circuit is also reduced which can lead to a higher
second order harmonic contribution. The circuit can be
driven single ended, but this is not recommended because
it leads to a 3dB drop in gain and a considerable increase
in IM5 and IM7 components. The single-ended noise
figure increases by 4dB if one IF input is directly grounded
and increases by 1.5dB if one IF input is grounded via a
1µH inductor. An IF input cannot be left open or connected
via a resistor to ground because this will disturb the
internal biasing, reducing the gain, noise and linearity
performance. For optimal performance, it is important to
keep the DC impedance to ground of both IF inputs lower
than 2. In the matching network of Figure 1, inductor L3
is used for supplying the DC bias current to the IF
+
input.
L7LJUEAR
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APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
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To keep the DC resistance of L3 below 2, 120nH is used.
This disturbs the matching network slightly by causing the
frequency where the S11 is minimal to be lower than the
frequency where the amplitudes of IF
+
and IF
are equal.
To compensate for this, the value of coupling capacitor C3
is lowered and will contribute some correcting reactance.
For low frequencies, it might not be possible to find any
practical inductor value for L3 with DC resistance smaller
than 2. In that case it is recommended to use a trans-
former with a center tap. The tolerance for the components
in Figure 1 can be 10% for a return loss higher than 16dB
and a gain reduction due to mismatch less than 0.3dB.
It is possible to simplify the input matching circuit and
compromise the performance. In Figure 2a, the simplified
matching network is given.
This matching network can deliver equal amplitudes to the
IF
+
and IF
inputs for a narrow frequency region, but the
phase difference between the inputs will not be exactly 180
degrees. In practice, the phase shift will be around 145
Figure 1. Example L-C IF Input Matching Network at 280MHz
C3
56pF
C1
5.6pF C2
5.6pF
L1
56nH
L3
120nH
L2
56nH
TO IF
+
TO IF
5546 F01
IF
INPUT
Table 1. The Component Values of Matching Network L1, L2, L3,
C1, C2 and C3.
f
IF
(MHz) L1, L2(nH) C1, C2(pF) L3(nH) C3(pF)
50 340 34 1800 820
100 159 15.9 470 220
150 106 10.6 470 220
200 80 8.0 470 220
250 64 6.4 120 56
300 53 5.3 120 56
350 45 4.5 120 56
400 40 4.0 120 56
450 35 3.5 120 56
500 32 3.2 120 56
degrees, depending on the quality factor of the network.
This will result in a reduction in the gain. The higher the
chosen quality factor, the closer the phase difference will
approach 180 degrees. However, a higher quality factor
will reduce bandwidth and create more loss in the match-
ing network. For minimum board space, 0402 compo-
nents are used. The measured noise figure for maximum
gain with this matching network is about 9.4dB, and the
maximum gain is about 55dB. Assuming 0402 inductors
with Q = 35, the insertion loss of this network is about
2.5dB. The tolerance for the components in Figure 2a can
be 10% for a return loss higher than 10dB and a gain
reduction due to mismatch less than 0.5dB. The measured
input sensitivity for this matching network (see also Fig-
ure 11) is about –78.3dBm for a 10dB signal-to-noise
ratio.
The gain of the VGA is set by the voltage at the V
CTRL
pin.
For high gain settings, both the noise figure and the input
IP3 will be low. From a noise figure point of view, it is
advantageous to work as closely as possible to the maxi-
mum gain point. However, if the voltage at the V
CTRL
pin
is increased beyond the maximum gain point (where
additional increase in control voltage does not give an
increase in gain), the response time of the gain control
circuit is increased. If control speed is crucial, a few dB of
gain margin should be allowed from the highest gain point
to be sure that at all temperatures, the maximum gain
setting is not crossed. At low gain settings, the noise figure
and the input IP3 will be high. Optionally, the control
voltage V
CTRL
can be set lower than 0.2V. The normal
range is from V
CTRL
= 0.2V to 1.7V, which results in a
nominal gain range from 1.6dB to 56.8dB. The linear-in-
dB gain relation with the V
CTRL
voltage still holds for
control voltages as low as –0.35V. This results in an
Figure 2a. Simplified IF Input Matching Network at 280MHz
and Figure 2b. Simplified Circuit Schematic of the IF Inputs
75
C1
10pF
L1
15nH
L2
15nH
TO IF
+
IF
IF
+
TO IF
5546 F02
IF
INPUT
1mA 1mA75
V
BIAS
(2a) (2b)
L7LJL1%
LT5546
9
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APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
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extended gain control range of –23dB to 57dB. The V
CTRL
pin is a very sensitive input because of its high input
impedance and therefore should be well shielded. Signal
pickup on the V
CTRL
pin can lead to spurs and increased
noise floor in the I/Q baseband outputs. It can degrade the
linearity performance and it can cause asymmetry in the
two-tone test. If control speed is not important, 1µF
bypass capacitors are recommended between V
CTRL
and
ground.
A fast responding peak detector is connected to the VGA
input, sensitive to signal levels above the signal levels
where the VGA is operating in the linear range. It is active
from –22dBm up to 5dBm IF input signal levels. The DC
output voltage of this detector (IF DET) can be used by the
baseband controller to quickly determine the presence of
a strong input level at the desired channel, and adjust gain
accordingly. Figure 3a shows the simplified circuit sche-
matic of the IF DET output.
I/Q Demodulators
The quadrature demodulators are double balanced mix-
ers, down-converting the amplified IF signal from the VGA
into I/Q baseband signals. The quadrature LO signals are
generated internally from a double frequency external CW
signal. The nominal output voltage of the differential I/Q
baseband signals should be set to 0.8V
P-P
or lower,
depending on the linearity requirements. The magnitudes
of I and Q are well matched and their phases are 90° apart.
Quadrature LO Generator
The quadrature LO generator consists of a divide-by-two
circuit and LO buffers. An input signal (2xLO) with twice
the desired IF signal frequency is used as the clock for the
divide-by-two circuit, producing the quadrature LO signals
for the demodulators. The outputs are buffered and then
drive the down-converting mixers. With a fully differential
approach, the quadrature LO signals are well matched.
Second harmonic content (or higher order even harmon-
ics) in the external 2xLO signal can degrade the 90° phase
shift between I and Q. Therefore, such content should be
minimized. In disable or standby mode, the divide-by-two
stage is powered down. After enabling the circuit, the phase
relation between the IF signal and the baseband (I or Q)
signals can be either 0° or 180°, since the circuit cannot
distinguish between the two subsequent identical sinusoi-
dal waveforms of the 2xLO input signal. The phase rela-
tion between I and Q is always 90°, i.e. I always leads Q by
90° for fIF > 1/2 • f2xLO. Figure 3b shows the simplified circuit
schematic of the 2xLO inputs. Depending on the applica-
tion, different 2xLO input matching networks can be cho-
sen. In Figure 4, three examples are given. The first net-
work provides the best 2xLO input sensitivity because it
can boost the 2xLO differential input signal using a nar-
row-band resonant approach. The second network gives
a wide-band match, but the 2xLO input sensitivity is about
2dB lower. The third network gives a simple and less
expensive wide-band match, but 2xLO input sensitivity
drops by about 9dB. The IF input sensitivity doesn’t change
significantly using any of the three 2xLO matching
networks.
Baseband Circuit
The baseband circuit consists of I/Q low-pass filters, I/Q
hard limiters (clippers) and I/Q output buffers. The hard
limiters operate as linear amplifiers normally. However, if
a high level input temporarily overloads a linear amplifier,
Figure 3a. Simplified Circuit Schematic of the
IF DET Output and Figure 3b. The 2xLO Inputs
3.8k
1k
8k 8k
5546 F03
IF DET
VCC VCC +
400mV
2xLO+
2xLO
(3a) (3b)
Figure 4. 2xLO Input Matching Networks for 4a) Narrow Band
Tuned to 570MHz, 4b) Wide Band, 4c) Single-Ended Wide Band
39nH
5546 F04
TO 2xLO
+
TO 2xLO
+
TO 2xLO
TO 2xLO
2xLO
INPUT
2xLO
INPUT
2xLO
INPUT
240
1:4
3.3pF 100pF
100pF
3.3pF
56
(4a) (4b) (4c)
TO 2xLO
+
TO 2xLO
‘IO Figura fi. Evalualiun Circuit Schemali L7LJUEAR
LT5546
10
5546fa
Table 2. The Logic of Different Operating Modes
EN STBY Comments
Low Low Shutdown Mode
Low High Standby Mode
High Low or High Normal Operation Mode
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
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then the circuit will limit symmetrically, which will help to
prevent the output buffer from overloading. This speeds
up recovery from an overload event, which can occur
during the gain settling. The clipping level is approxi-
mately constant over temperature. The first order inte-
grated lowpass filters are used for noise filtering of the
down-converted baseband signals for both the I channel
and the Q channel. These filters are well matched in gain
response. The –3dB corner frequency is typically 17MHz.
The I/Q outputs can drive 2k in parallel with a maximum
capacitive loading of 10pF at 5MHz, from all four pins to
ground. The outputs are internally biased at V
CC
– 1.19V.
Figure 5 shows the simplified output circuit schematic of
the I channel or Q channel.
The I/Q baseband outputs can be DC-coupled to the inputs
of a baseband chip. For AC-coupled applications with large
capacitors, the STBY pin can be used to pre-bias the
outputs to nominal V
CC
– 1.19V at much reduced current.
This mode draws only 3.6mA supply current. When the EN
pin is then driven high (>1V), the chip is quickly switched
to normal operating mode, avoiding the introduction of Figure 5. Simplified Circuit Schematic of I Channel
(or Q Channel) Outputs and STBY (or EN) Input
300µA
300µA
V
CC
I CHANNEL (OR
Q CHANNEL):
DIFFERENTIAL
SIGNALS
FROM LPF
I
OUT+
(OR Q
OUT+
)
I
OUT
(OR Q
OUT
)
5546 F05
STBY
(OR EN)
V
CC
22k
large charging time constants. Table 2 shows the logic of
the EN pin and STBY pin. In both normal operating mode
and standby mode, the maximum discharging current is
about 300µA, and the maximum charging current is more
than 4mA. In Figure 5 the simplified circuit schematic of
the STBY (or EN) input is shown.
Figure 6. Evaluation Circuit Schematic with I/Q Output Buffers
+
1
2
3
4
12
11
10
9
STBY
2XLO+
2XLO
EN
GND
IF+
IF
GND
U1
LT5546
T1, 1:4,TR-R
JTX-4-10T
MINI-CIRCUITS
IFIN
R48
3.09k
R47
49.9
R51
100
C32
1pF R40
3.09k
C29
1pF
R52
240
R36
20k
R35
20k
C34
0.1µF
C35
4.7µF
C38
0.1µF
C37
0.1µF
C1
5.6pF
C2
5.6pF
SW1
1 = EN
2 = STBY
16
1
6
+
C45
22nF
77
6 6
4 4
3
2
3
2
J1
IOUT
IOUT+IOUTQOUT+QOUT
IOUT+IOUTQOUT+QOUT
QOUT
J3 J4
C22
1µF
C33
0.1µF
C31
1µFR44
49.9J2
C30
1µF
U3
LT1818CS
U2
LT1818CS
VCC1
VCC2
VCTRL
VCC VCTRL VCC
C26
1.8pF
C25
1.5pF
C16
1nF
C15
1nF C39
1µF
VCC3
C36
4.7µF
R46
3.09k
R45
1k
C28
0.1µF
R42
2k
R49
2k
R39
3.09k
R41
1k
R50
2k
C27
0.1µF
R43
2k
2XLO
OVERLOAD
IF
DET
16 15 14 13
5 6 7 8 17 GND
NOTE: OUTPUT BUFFERS U2 AND U3 WITH ASSOCIATED
COMPONENTS ARE INCLUDED FOR EVALUATION ONLY.
DEMO BOARD: DC696A
C43, C45, C22, R51, C25, C26 AND C39 ARE OPTIONAL
5546 F04
T2, 1:4, TR-R
JTX-4-10T
MINI-CIRCUITS
C43
22nF
5V
OPTIONAL
L7LJL1%
LT5546
11
5546fa
Figure 7. Component Side Silkscreen of Evaluation Board Figure 8. Component Side Layout of Evaluation Board
Figure 9. Bottom Side Silkscreen of Evaluation Board Figure 10. Bottom Side Layout of Evaluation Board
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
WUUU
Figure 11. 2.4GHz to 2.5GHz Receiver Application (RX IF = 280MHz)
EN
STBY
V
CC
0°
90°
1.8V
1µF1nF
280MHz
IF SAW BP FILTER
10pF
5546 F11
f/2
LT5546
16
15
7
6
14
13
12
9
2
3
11
10
15nH
15nH
39nH
3.3pF
3.3pF
IF DET
V
CTRL
I-MIXER
Q-MIXER
HARD
CLIPPER
HARD
CLIPPER
LPF
LPF
5, 8
RX
FRONT END
MAIN
SYNTHESIZER
AUX
SYNTHESIZER
RX INPUT:
2.4GHz TO 2.5GHz
Q-OUTPUTS
I-OUTPUTS A/D
A/D
D/A
A/D
BASEBAND
PROCESSOR
1,4,17
1ST LO,
2.12GHz
TO 2.22GHz
2ND LO,
560MHz
–10dBm
VGA
Evaluation Board
The evaluation circuit schematic is drawn in Figure 6. The
components associated with buffers U2 and U3 are in-
cluded to drive a 50 load for evaluation purposes only.
Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no represen-
tation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
There is a unity voltage gain relationship for AC signals
between the evaluation board outputs (I and Q) and the
I
OUT+
, I
OUT
or Q
OUT+
and Q
OUT
outputs of the LT5546
when the evaluation board outputs are terminated in 50.
Efififrfi '1 ' a 1 is / 1 : 1 +1 0 1 U up U 1 TF 1 E3] 1 Q 1 C Q.,.,.i,,,,,,i:n, , ,,,,,,, L ,,,,, ,, 111,;,,,,,1,,,, C [El 1 iii 1 3 1 C 1 .4; 1 Eu 1 1 C 4; I i . 1 . 1,431} , my I m m1 m ‘ Cusmfi ‘ 41 02mm ‘ I lemmas » «0553s: a means » osoosc aEcoMMEuoEo sDLoER no man AND DIMENSIDNS I°I§twwmtmmsmmmung0memmmmuwaao a oiMEusionsorExPosEoPnoouocrrouoreAmoEoonoriuctuoE 2 DRAWINGNDYTOSCALE MutDFtJtSH MOLD msn 1; PREsEur SRALLNOTEXDEEDOtannnDNANVSiDE a ALLDIMENSIONSAREIN MILLIMETERS 5 ExPosEoPAosHALtEESOLDER mm: s SHADEDARUiSONLVAREFERENCEFDRPiNt LOCATIDN DN YHEYOPAND BOTTOM or exam: PART NUMBER‘ DESCRIPTION COMMENTS Irilrastriioture LT5511 High Signal Level Upconverting Mixer RF Output to 3131-12. 17dBm IIP3. Integrated LU Butler LT5512 High Signal Level Downconverting Mixer DC'SGHZ‘ ZDdBm IIP3, Integrated LO Buffer LT5515 1561-12 to 2.56Hz DirectrConversion 20dBm IIPB, NF :16 HdB, Integrated LU Quadrature Generator Quadrature Demodulator LT5516 800MHz to 1561-12 DIIBCt'COQVEISID" 4V to 5.25V Supply 21 5dBm IIPS. NF : 12.8dB, Quadrature Demodulator Integrated LQ Quadrature Generator LT5522 600MHz to 2.7GHz High Signal Level 4.5V to 5.25V Supply 25dBm IIP3 at 900MHz. NF : 12.5dB, 50:2 SinglerEnded Downconverting Mixer RF and L0 Ports RF Power Detectors LT5504 800MHz to 2.7GHz RF Measuring Receiver 2.7V to 5.25V Supply BOdB Dynamic Range. Temperature Compensated LTC5505 RF Power Detectors Witn >40dB Dynamic Range 2.7V to 6V Supply, 300MHz to 3.56112 Temperature Compensated LTC5507 tOOkHz to 100MHz RF Power Detector 2.7V to 6V Supply, ASdB Dynamic Range, Temperature Compensated LTCSSOE 0.36112 to 7GHZ RF Power Detector 2.7V to 6V Supply, 44dB Dynamic Range, Temperature Compensated LTC5509 300MHz to 3GHZ RF Power Detector rSOdBm to SdBm. GDOpA Supply Current, Temperature Compensated LTC5532 300MHz to 7GHZ Precision RF Power Detector Precision Vom Ofiset Control Adiustahle Gain and Ollset RF Receiver Building Blocks LTSSOD 1361-12 to 2.7GHz Receiver Front End 1.8V to 5.25V Supply Duaerain LNA. Mixer LT5502 400MHz Quadrature IF Demodulator With RSSI 1.8V to 5.25V Supply 70MHz to 400MHz IF, 84dB Limiting Gain, BOdB RSS LT5503 1.2GHz to 2.7GHz Direct l0 Modulator and Mixer 1.8V to 5.25V Supply Four Step RF Power Control, 120MHz Modulation Ba US$06 AOMHzto 500MHz Quadrature IF Demodulator 1.8V to 5.25V I/Q Baseoand Bandiyidtn E HMHZ 41MB to 57dB Linear Pow With VGA LinearTechnology Corporation 1630 McCarthy Blvd. Milpitas, CA 95035-7417 1408143271900 - FAX. (408) 43470507 - wwtulineancom LT'Lwl/LT o7o5 REV A« FRIN L7LJIIEQQ LINEAR TECHNOLOGY coRPo
LT5546
12
5546fa
Linear Technology Corporation
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
FAX: (408) 434-0507
www.linear.com
RELATED PARTS
PACKAGE DESCRIPTIO
U
UF Package
16-Lead Plastic QFN (4mm × 4mm)
(Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1692)
© LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2003
LT/LWI/LT 0705 REV A • PRINTED IN USA
PART NUMBER DESCRIPTION COMMENTS
Infrastructure
LT5511 High Signal Level Upconverting Mixer RF Output to 3GHz, 17dBm IIP3, Integrated LO Buffer
LT5512 High Signal Level Downconverting Mixer DC-3GHz, 20dBm IIP3, Integrated LO Buffer
LT5515 1.5GHz to 2.5GHz Direct-Conversion 20dBm IIP3, NF =16.8dB, Integrated LO Quadrature Generator
Quadrature Demodulator
LT5516 800MHz to 1.5GHz Direct-Conversion 4V to 5.25V Supply, 21.5dBm IIP3, NF = 12.8dB,
Quadrature Demodulator Integrated LO Quadrature Generator
LT5522 600MHz to 2.7GHz High Signal Level 4.5V to 5.25V Supply, 25dBm IIP3 at 900MHz, NF = 12.5dB, 50 Single-Ended
Downconverting Mixer RF and LO Ports
RF Power Detectors
LT5504 800MHz to 2.7GHz RF Measuring Receiver 2.7V to 5.25V Supply, 80dB Dynamic Range, Temperature Compensated
LTC5505 RF Power Detectors with >40dB Dynamic Range 2.7V to 6V Supply, 300MHz to 3.5GHz, Temperature Compensated
LTC5507 100kHz to 1000MHz RF Power Detector 2.7V to 6V Supply, 48dB Dynamic Range, Temperature Compensated
LTC5508 0.3GHz to 7GHz RF Power Detector 2.7V to 6V Supply, 44dB Dynamic Range, Temperature Compensated
LTC5509 300MHz to 3GHz RF Power Detector –30dBm to 6dBm, 600µA Supply Current, Temperature Compensated
LTC5532 300MHz to 7GHz Precision RF Power Detector Precision V
OUT
Offset Control, Adjustable Gain and Offset
RF Receiver Building Blocks
LT5500 1.8GHz to 2.7GHz Receiver Front End 1.8V to 5.25V Supply, Dual-Gain LNA, Mixer
LT5502 400MHz Quadrature IF Demodulator with RSSI 1.8V to 5.25V Supply, 70MHz to 400MHz IF, 84dB Limiting Gain, 90dB RSSI Range
LT5503 1.2GHz to 2.7GHz Direct IQ Modulator and Mixer 1.8V to 5.25V Supply, Four Step RF Power Control, 120MHz Modulation Bandwidth
LT5506 40MHz to 500MHz Quadrature IF Demodulator 1.8V to 5.25V, I/Q Baseband Bandwidth 8.8MHz, –40dB to 57dB Linear Power Gain
with VGA
4.00 ± 0.10
(4 SIDES)
4. DIMENSIONS OF EXPOSED PAD ON BOTTOM OF PACKAGE DO NOT INCLUDE
MOLD FLASH. MOLD FLASH, IF PRESENT, SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.15mm ON ANY SIDE
5. EXPOSED PAD SHALL BE SOLDER PLATED
6. SHADED AREA IS ONLY A REFERENCE FOR PIN 1 LOCATION
ON THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF PACKAGE
NOTE:
1. DRAWING CONFORMS TO JEDEC PACKAGE OUTLINE MO-220 VARIATION (WGGC)
2. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE
3. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS
PIN 1
TOP MARK
(NOTE 6)
0.55 ± 0.20
1615
1
2
BOTTOM VIEW—EXPOSED PAD
2.15 ± 0.10
(4-SIDES)
0.75 ± 0.05 R = 0.115
TYP
0.30 ± 0.05
0.65 BSC
0.200 REF
0.00 – 0.05
(UF16) QFN 10-04
RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD PITCH AND DIMENSIONS
0.72 ±0.05
0.30 ±0.05
0.65 BSC
2.15 ± 0.05
(4 SIDES)
2.90 ± 0.05
4.35 ± 0.05
PACKAGE OUTLINE
PIN 1 NOTCH R = 0.20 TYP
OR 0.35 × 45° CHAMFER

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