dsPIC30F2010 Datasheet by Microchip Technology

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© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J
dsPIC30F2010
Data Sheet
High-Performance,
16-bit Digital Signal Controllers
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFIED BY DNV = ISO/TS 1694922002 =
DS70118J-page 2 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
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Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC,
KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART,
PIC32 logo, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of
Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other
countries.
FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor,
MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard,
dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified
logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code
Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit,
PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance,
TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2011, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
ISBN: 978-1-60932-889-4
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
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Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
Mlcgcmp dSPIC3OF201O
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 3
dsPIC30F2010
High-Performance Modified RISC CPU:
Modified Harvard architecture
C compiler optimized instruction set architecture
83 base instructions with flexible addressing
modes
24-bit wide instructions, 16-bit wide data path
12 Kbytes on-chip Flash program space
512 bytes on-chip data RAM
1 Kbyte nonvolatile data EEPROM
16 x 16-bit working register array
Up to 30 MIPs operation:
- DC to 40 MHz external clock input
- 4 MHz-10 MHz oscillator input with
PLL active (4x, 8x, 16x)
27 interrupt sources
Three external interrupt sources
Eight user-selectable priority levels for each interrupt
Four processor exceptions and software traps
DSP Engine Features:
Modulo and Bit-Reversed modes
Two 40-bit wide accumulators with optional
saturation logic
17-bit x 17-bit single-cycle hardware fractional/
integer multiplier
Single-cycle Multiply-Accumulate (MAC)
operation
40-stage Barrel Shifter
Dual data fetch
Peripheral Features:
High current sink/source I/O pins: 25 mA/25 mA
Three 16-bit timers/counters; optionally pair up
16-bit timers into 32-bit timer modules
Four 16-bit capture input functions
Two 16-bit compare/PWM output functions
- Dual Compare mode available
3-wire SPI modules (supports 4 Frame modes)
•I
2CTM module supports Multi-Master/Slave mode
and 7-bit/10-bit addressing
Addressable UART modules with FIFO buffers
Motor Control PWM Module Features:
Six PWM output channels
- Complementary or Independent Output
modes
- Edge and Center-Aligned modes
Four duty cycle generators
Dedicated time base with four modes
Programmable output polarity
Dead-time control for Complementary mode
Manual output control
Trigger for synchronized A/D conversions
Quadrature Encoder Interface Module
Features:
Phase A, Phase B and Index Pulse input
16-bit up/down position counter
Count direction status
Position Measurement (x2 and x4) mode
Programmable digital noise filters on inputs
Alternate 16-bit Timer/Counter mode
Interrupt on position counter rollover/underflow
Analog Features:
10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) with:
- 1 Msps (for 10-bit A/D) conversion rate
- Six input channels
- Conversion available during Sleep and Idle
Programmable Brown-out Reset
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual”
(DS70046). For more information on the
device instruction set and programming,
refer to the “16-bit MCU and DSC Pro-
grammer’s Reference Manual”
(DS70157).
High-Performance, 16-bit Digital Signal Controller
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 4 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Special Digital Signal Controller
Features:
Enhanced Flash program memory:
- 10,000 erase/write cycle (min.) for
industrial temperature range, 100K (typical)
Data EEPROM memory:
- 100,000 erase/write cycle (min.) for
industrial temperature range, 1M (typical)
Self-reprogrammable under software control
Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up Timer (PWRT)
and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
Flexible Watchdog Timer (WDT) with on-chip
low-power RC oscillator for reliable operation
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) operation
Detects clock failure and switches to on-chip
Low-Power RC (LPRC) oscillator
Programmable code protection
In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™)
programming capability
Selectable Power Management modes
- Sleep, Idle and Alternate Clock modes
CMOS Technology:
Low-power, high-speed Flash technology
Wide operating voltage range (2.5V to 5.5V)
Industrial and Extended temperature ranges
Low power consumption
dsPIC30F Motor Control and Power Conversion Family
Device Pins Program
Mem. Bytes/
Instructions
SRAM
Bytes EEPROM
Bytes Timer
16-bit Input
Cap
Output
Comp/Std
PWM
Motor
Control
PWM
A/D 10-bit
1 Msps
QEI
UART
SPI
I2CTM
dsPIC30F2010 28 12K/4K 512 1024 3 4 2 6 ch 6 ch Yes 1 1 1
33333333333333 EEEEEEEEEEEEEE
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 5
dsPIC30F2010
Pin Diagrams
MCLR
PWM1L/RE0
PWM1H/RE1
PWM2L/RE2
PWM2H/RE3
PWM3L/RE4
PWM3H/RE5
VSS
VDD
EMUD3/AN0/VREF+/CN2/RB0
EMUC3/AN1/VREF-/CN3/RB1
AVDD
AVSS
AN2/SS1/CN4/RB2
EMUD2/OC2/IC2/INT2/RD1 EMUC2/OC1/IC1/INT1/RD0
EMUC1/SOSCO/T1CK/U1ARX/CN0/RC14
EMUD1/SOSCI/T2CK/U1ATX/CN1//RC13 VSS
OSC2/CLKO/RC15
OSC1/CLKI VDD
FLTA/INT0/SCK1/OCFA/RE8
PGC/EMUC/U1RX/SDI1/SDA/RF2
PGD/EMUD/U1TX/SDO1/SCL/RF3
AN5/QEB/IC8/CN7/RB5
AN4/QEA/IC7/CN6/RB4
AN3/INDX/CN5/RB3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
28-Pin SDIP and SOIC
dsPIC30F2010
28-Pin QFN-S(1)
dsPIC30F2010
2
3
6
1
18
19
20
21
15
716
17
EMUD1/SOSCI/T2CK/U1ATX/CN1/RC13
5
4
AVDD
AVSS
PWM1L/RE0
PWM1H/RE1
PWM2L/RE2
PWM2H/RE3
PWM3L/RE4
PWM3H/RE5
VDD
VSS
PGC/EMUC/U1RX/SDI1/SDA/RF2
PGD/EMUD/U1TX/SDO1/SCL/RF3
FLTA/INT0/SCK1/OCFA/RE8
EMUC2/OC1/IC1/INT1/RD0
MCLR
EMUD3/AN0/VREF+/CN2/RB0
EMUC3/AN1/VREF- /CN3/RB1
AN2/SS1/CN4/RB2
AN3/INDX/CN5 RB3
AN4/QEA/IC7/CN6/RB4
AN5/QEB/IC8/CN7/RB5
VSS
OSC1/CLKI
OSC2/CLKO/RC15
EMUC1/SOSCO/T1CK/U1ARX/CN0/RC14
VDD
EMUD2/OC2/IC2/INT2/RD1
10
11
12
13
14
8
9
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Note 1: The metal plane at the bottom of the device is not connected to any pins and is recommended to be connected to VSS externally.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 6 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7
2.0 CPU Architecture Overview........................................................................................................................................................ 11
3.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................. 19
4.0 Address Generator Units............................................................................................................................................................ 31
5.0 Interrupts .................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
6.0 Flash Program Memory.............................................................................................................................................................. 43
7.0 Data EEPROM Memory ............................................................................................................................................................. 49
8.0 I/O Ports ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
9.0 Timer1 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................... 57
10.0 Timer2/3 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................ 61
11.0 Input Capture Module................................................................................................................................................................. 67
12.0 Output Compare Module ............................................................................................................................................................ 71
13.0 Quadrature Encoder Interface (QEI) Module ............................................................................................................................. 75
14.0 Motor Control PWM Module ....................................................................................................................................................... 81
15.0 SPI Module................................................................................................................................................................................. 91
16.0 I2C™ Module ............................................................................................................................................................................. 95
17.0 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) Module .............................................................................................. 103
18.0 10-bit High-Speed Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Module ................................................................................................ 111
19.0 System Integration ................................................................................................................................................................... 121
20.0 Instruction Set Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 135
21.0 Development Support............................................................................................................................................................... 143
22.0 Electrical Characteristics .......................................................................................................................................................... 147
23.0 Packaging Information.............................................................................................................................................................. 185
The Microchip Web Site..................................................................................................................................................................... 199
Customer Change Notification Service .............................................................................................................................................. 199
Customer Support.............................................................................................................................................................................. 199
Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 200
Product Identification System............................................................................................................................................................. 201
TO OUR VALUED CUSTOMERS
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© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 7
dsPIC30F2010
1.0 DEVICE OVERVIEW
This document contains device specific information for
the dsPIC30F2010 device. The dsPIC30F devices
contain extensive Digital Signal Processor (DSP)
functionality within a high-performance 16-bit
microcontroller (MCU) architecture. Figure 1-1 shows a
device block diagram for the dsPIC30F2010 device.
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
“dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual”
(DS70046). For more information on the
device instruction set and programming,
refer to the “16-bit MCU and DSC Pro-
grammer’s Reference Manual”
(DS70157).
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dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 8 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 1-1: dsPIC30F2010 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Power-up
Timer
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
POR/BOR
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Instruction
Decode and
Control
OSC1/CLKI
MCLR
AN4/QEA/IC7/CN6/RB4
UART1SPI1 Motor Control
PWM
Timing
Generation
AN5/QEB/IC8/CN7/RB5
16
PCH PCL
Program Counter
ALU<16>
16
Address Latch
Program Memory
(12 Kbytes)
Data Latch
24
24
24
24
X Data Bus
IR
I2C™
QEI
PCU
PWM1L/RE0
PWM1H/RE1
PWM2L/RE2
PWM2H/RE3
PWM3L/RE4
10-bit ADC
Timers
PWM3H/RE5
FLTA/INT0/SCK1/OCFA/RE8
Input
Capture
Module
Output
Compare
Module
EMUC1/SOSCO/T1CK/U1ARX/CN0/RC14
EMUD1/SOSCI/T2CK/U1ATX/CN1/RC13
PORTB
PGC/EMUC/U1RX/SDI1/SDA/RF2
PGD/EMUD/U1TX/SDO1/SCL/RF3
PORTF
PORTD
16
16 16
16 x 16
W Reg Array
Divide
Unit
Engine
DSP
Decode
ROM Latch
16
Y Data Bus
Effective Address
X RAGU
X WAGU
Y AGU EMUD3/AN0/VREF+/CN2/RB0
EMUC3/AN1/VREF-/CN3/RB1
AN2/SS1/CN4/RB2
AN3/INDX/CN5/RB3
OSC2/CLKO/RC15
16
16
16
16
16
PORTC
PORTE
16
16
16
16
8
Interrupt
Controller
PSV and Table
Data Access
Control Block
Stack
Control
Logic
Loop
Control
Logic
Data LatchData Latch
Y Data
(256 bytes)
RAM X Data
(256 bytes)
RAM
Address
Latch
Address
Latch
Control Signals
to Various Blocks
EMUC2/OC1/IC1/INT1/RD0
EMUD2/OC2/IC2/INT2/RD1
16
Data EEPROM
(1 Kbyte)
16
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 9
dsPIC30F2010
Table 1-1 provides a brief description of device I/O pin-
outs and the functions that may be multiplexed to a port
pin. Multiple functions may exist on one port pin. When
multiplexing occurs, the peripheral module’s functional
requirements may force an override of the data
direction of the port pin.
TABLE 1-1: PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS
Pin Name Pin
Type Buffer
Type Description
AN0-AN5 I Analog Analog input channels.
AVDD P P Positive supply for analog module. This pin must be connected at all times.
AVSS P P Ground reference for analog module. This pin must be connected at all times.
CLKI
CLKO I
OST/CMOS
External clock source input. Always associated with OSC1 pin function.
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal
Oscillator mode. Optionally functions as CLKO in RC and EC modes. Always
associated with OSC2 pin function.
CN0-CN7 I ST Input change notification inputs.
Can be software programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs.
EMUD
EMUC
EMUD1
EMUC1
EMUD2
EMUC2
EMUD3
EMUC3
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ICD Primary Communication Channel data input/output pin.
ICD Primary Communication Channel clock input/output pin.
ICD Secondary Communication Channel data input/output pin.
ICD Secondary Communication Channel clock input/output pin.
ICD Tertiary Communication Channel data input/output pin.
ICD Tertiary Communication Channel clock input/output pin.
ICD Quaternary Communication Channel data input/output pin.
ICD Quaternary Communication Channel clock input/output pin.
IC1, IC2, IC7,
IC8 I ST Capture inputs. The dsPIC30F2010 has four capture inputs. The inputs are
numbered for consistency with the inputs on larger device variants.
INDX
QEA
QEB
I
I
I
ST
ST
ST
Quadrature Encoder Index Pulse input.
Quadrature Encoder Phase A input in QEI mode.
Auxiliary Timer External Clock/Gate input in Timer mode.
Quadrature Encoder Phase B input in QEI mode.
Auxiliary Timer External Clock/Gate input in Timer mode.
INT0
INT1
INT2
I
I
I
ST
ST
ST
External interrupt 0
External interrupt 1
External interrupt 2
FLTA
PWM1L
PWM1H
PWM2L
PWM2H
PWM3L
PWM3H
I
O
O
O
O
O
O
ST
PWM Fault A input
PWM 1 Low output
PWM 1 High output
PWM 2 Low output
PWM 2 High output
PWM 3 Low output
PWM 3 High output
MCLR I/P ST Master Clear (Reset) input or programming voltage input. This pin is an
active-low Reset to the device.
OCFA
OC1-OC2 I
OST
Compare Fault A input (for Compare channels 1, 2, 3 and 4).
Compare outputs.
OSC1
OSC2
I
I/O
ST/CMOS
Oscillator crystal input. ST buffer when configured in RC mode; CMOS
otherwise.
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal Oscillator
mode. Optionally functions as CLKO in RC and EC modes.
Legend: CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output Analog = Analog input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels O = Output
I = Input P = Power
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 10 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PGD
PGC I/O
IST
ST In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™) data input/output pin.
In-Circuit Serial Programming clock input pin.
RB0-RB5 I/O ST PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port.
RC13-RC14 I/O ST PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port.
RD0-RD1 I/O ST PORTD is a bidirectional I/O port.
RE0-RE5,
RE8 I/O ST PORTE is a bidirectional I/O port.
RF2, RF3 I/O ST PORTF is a bidirectional I/O port.
SCK1
SDI1
SDO1
SS1
I/O
I
O
I
ST
ST
ST
Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI1.
SPI1 Data In.
SPI1 Data Out.
SPI1 Slave Synchronization.
SCL
SDA I/O
I/O ST
ST Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C™.
Synchronous serial data input/output for I2C.
SOSCO
SOSCI O
I
ST/CMOS 32 kHz low-power oscillator crystal output.
32 kHz low-power oscillator crystal input. ST buffer when configured in RC
mode; CMOS otherwise.
T1CK
T2CK I
IST
ST Timer1 external clock input.
Timer2 external clock input.
U1RX
U1TX
U1ARX
U1ATX
I
O
I
O
ST
ST
UART1 Receive.
UART1 Transmit.
UART1 Alternate Receive.
UART1 Alternate Transmit.
VDD P Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
VSS P Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VREF+ I Analog Analog Voltage Reference (High) input.
VREF- I Analog Analog Voltage Reference (Low) input.
TABLE 1-1: PINOUT I/O DESCRIPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Pin Name Pin
Type Buffer
Type Description
Legend: CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output Analog = Analog input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels O = Output
I = Input P = Power
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 11
dsPIC30F2010
2.0 CPU ARCHITECTURE
OVERVIEW
2.1 Core Overview
The core has a 24-bit instruction word. The Program
Counter (PC) is 23 bits wide with the Least Significant
bit (LSb) always clear (see Section 3.1 “Program
Address Space”), and the Most Significant bit (MSb)
is ignored during normal program execution, except for
certain specialized instructions. Thus, the PC can
address up to 4M instruction words of user program
space. An instruction prefetch mechanism is used to
help maintain throughput. Program loop constructs,
free from loop count management overhead, are sup-
ported using the DO and REPEAT instructions, both of
which are interruptible at any point.
The working register array consists of 16x16-bit regis-
ters, each of which can act as data, address or offset
registers. One working register (W15) operates as a
software Stack Pointer for interrupts and calls.
The data space is 64 Kbytes (32K words) and is split
into two blocks, referred to as X and Y data memory.
Each block has its own independent Address Genera-
tion Unit (AGU). Most instructions operate solely
through the X memory AGU, which provides the
appearance of a single unified data space. The
Multiply-Accumulate (MAC) class of dual source DSP
instructions operate through both the X and Y AGUs,
splitting the data address space into two parts (see
Section 3.2 “Data Address Space”). The X and Y
data space boundary is device specific and cannot be
altered by the user. Each data word consists of 2 bytes,
and most instructions can address data either as words
or bytes.
There are two methods of accessing data stored in
program memory:
The upper 32 Kbytes of data space memory can be
mapped into the lower half (user space) of program
space at any 16K program word boundary, defined by
the 8-bit Program Space Visibility Page (PSVPAG)
register. This lets any instruction access program
space as if it were data space, with a limitation that
the access requires an additional cycle. Moreover,
only the lower 16 bits of each instruction word can be
accessed using this method.
Linear indirect access of 32K word pages within
program space is also possible using any working
register, via table read and write instructions.
Table read and write instructions can be used to
access all 24 bits of an instruction word.
Overhead-free circular buffers (Modulo Addressing)
are supported in both X and Y address spaces. This is
primarily intended to remove the loop overhead for
DSP algorithms.
The X AGU also supports Bit-Reversed Addressing on
destination effective addresses, to greatly simplify input
or output data reordering for radix-2 FFT algorithms.
Refer to Section 4.0 “Address Generator Units” for
details on Modulo and Bit-Reversed Addressing.
The core supports Inherent (no operand), Relative, Lit-
eral, Memory Direct, Register Direct, Register Indirect,
Register Offset and Literal Offset Addressing modes.
Instructions are associated with predefined Addressing
modes, depending upon their functional requirements.
For most instructions, the core is capable of executing
a data (or program data) memory read, a working reg-
ister (data) read, a data memory write and a program
(instruction) memory read per instruction cycle. As a
result, 3-operand instructions are supported, allowing
C = A + B operations to be executed in a single cycle.
A DSP engine has been included to significantly
enhance the core arithmetic capability and throughput.
It features a high-speed 17-bit by 17-bit multiplier, a
40-bit ALU, two 40-bit saturating accumulators and a
40-bit bidirectional barrel shifter. Data in the accumula-
tor or any working register can be shifted up to 15 bits
right or 16 bits left in a single cycle. The DSP instruc-
tions operate seamlessly with all other instructions and
have been designed for optimal real-time performance.
The MAC class of instructions can concurrently fetch
two data operands from memory, while multiplying two
W registers. To enable this concurrent fetching of data
operands, the data space has been split for these
instructions and linear for all others. This has been
achieved in a transparent and flexible manner, by
dedicating certain working registers to each address
space for the MAC class of instructions.
The core does not support a multi-stage instruction
pipeline. However, a single stage instruction prefetch
mechanism is used, which accesses and partially
decodes instructions a cycle ahead of execution, in
order to maximize available execution time. Most
instructions execute in a single cycle, with certain
exceptions.
The core features a vectored exception processing
structure for traps and interrupts, with 62 independent
vectors. The exceptions consist of up to 8 traps (of
which 4 are reserved) and 54 interrupts. Each interrupt
is prioritized based on a user-assigned priority between
1 and 7 (1 being the lowest priority and 7 being the
highest) in conjunction with a predetermined ‘natural
order’. Traps have fixed priorities, ranging from 8 to 15.
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046). For more information on the
device instruction set and programming,
refer to the “16-bit MCU and DSC Pro-
grammer’s Reference Manual”
(DS70157).
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 12 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.2 Programmer’s Model
The programmer’s model is shown in Figure 2-1 and
consists of 16 x 16-bit working registers (W0 through
W15), 2 x 40-bit accumulators (ACCA and ACCB),
STATUS Register (SR), Data Table Page register
(TBLPAG), Program Space Visibility Page register
(PSVPAG), DO and REPEAT registers (DOSTART,
DOEND, DCOUNT and RCOUNT) and Program Coun-
ter (PC). The working registers can act as data,
address or offset registers. All registers are memory
mapped. W0 acts as the W register for file register
addressing.
Some of these registers have a shadow register asso-
ciated with each of them, as shown in Figure 2-1. The
shadow register is used as a temporary holding register
and can transfer its contents to or from its host register
upon the occurrence of an event. None of the shadow
registers are accessible directly. The following rules
apply for transfer of registers into and out of shadows.
PUSH.S and POP.S
W0, W1, W2, W3, SR (DC, N, OV, Z and C bits
only) are transferred.
DO instruction
DOSTART, DOEND, DCOUNT shadows are
pushed on loop start, and popped on loop end.
When a byte operation is performed on a working reg-
ister, only the Least Significant Byte (LSB) of the target
register is affected. However, a benefit of memory
mapped working registers is that both the Least and
Most Significant Bytes can be manipulated through
byte wide data memory space accesses.
2.2.1 SOFTWARE STACK POINTER/
FRAME POINTER
The dsPIC® DSC devices contain a software stack.
W15 is the dedicated software Stack Pointer (SP), and
will be automatically modified by exception processing
and subroutine calls and returns. However, W15 can be
referenced by any instruction in the same manner as all
other W registers. This simplifies the reading, writing
and manipulation of the Stack Pointer (e.g., creating
stack frames).
W15 is initialized to 0x0800 during a Reset. The user
may reprogram the SP during initialization to any
location within data space.
W14 has been dedicated as a Stack Frame Pointer as
defined by the LNK and ULNK instructions. However,
W14 can be referenced by any instruction in the same
manner as all other W registers.
2.2.2 STATUS REGISTER
The dsPIC DSC core has a 16-bit STATUS Register
(SR), the LSB of which is referred to as the SR Low
Byte (SRL) and the MSB as the SR High Byte (SRH).
See Figure 2-1 for SR layout.
SRL contains all the MCU ALU operation status flags
(including the Z bit), as well as the CPU Interrupt Prior-
ity Level status bits, IPL<2:0>, and the REPEAT active
status bit, RA. During exception processing, SRL is
concatenated with the MSB of the PC to form a
complete word value which is then stacked.
The upper byte of the STATUS register contains the
DSP adder/subtracter status bits, the DO Loop Active
bit (DA) and the Digit Carry (DC) status bit.
2.2.3 PROGRAM COUNTER
The Program Counter is 23 bits wide. Bit 0 is always
clear. Therefore, the PC can address up to 4M
instruction words.
Note: In order to protect against misaligned
stack accesses, W15<0> is always clear.
Viiiiiiw LiiiiiiJ S S |:| ‘ n ‘ n \\\\\\\H\\\
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 13
dsPIC30F2010
FIGURE 2-1: PROGRAMMER’S MODEL
TABPAG
PC22 PC0
7 0
D0D15
Program Counter
Data Table Page Address
STATUS Register
Working Registers
DSP Operand
Registers
W1
W2
W3
W4
W5
W6
W7
W8
W9
W10
W11
W12/DSP Offset
W13/DSP Write-Back
W14/Frame Pointer
W15/Stack Pointer
DSP Address
Registers
AD39 AD0AD31
DSP
Accumulators ACCA
ACCB
PSVPAG
7 0
Program Space Visibility Page Address
Z
0
OA OB SA SB
RCOUNT
15 0
REPEAT Loop Counter
DCOUNT
15 0
DO Loop Counter
DOSTART
22 0
DO Loop Start Address
IPL2 IPL1
SPLIM Stack Pointer Limit Register
AD15
SRL
PUSH.S Shadow
DO Shadow
OAB SAB
15 0
Core Configuration Register
Legend
CORCON
DA DC RA N
TBLPAG
PSVPAG
IPL0 OV
W0/WREG
SRH
DO Loop End Address
DOEND
22
C
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 14 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.3 Divide Support
The dsPIC DSC devices feature a 16/16-bit signed
fractional divide operation, as well as 32/16-bit and 16/
16-bit signed and unsigned integer divide operations, in
the form of single instruction iterative divides. The
following instructions and data sizes are supported:
DIVF – 16/16 signed fractional divide
DIV.sd – 32/16 signed divide
DIV.ud – 32/16 unsigned divide
DIV.sw – 16/16 signed divide
DIV.uw – 16/16 unsigned divide
The 16/16 divides are similar to the 32/16 (same number
of iterations), but the dividend is either zero-extended or
sign-extended during the first iteration.
The divide instructions must be executed within a
REPEAT loop. Any other form of execution (e.g., a
series of discrete divide instructions) will not function
correctly because the instruction flow depends on
RCOUNT. The divide instruction does not automatically
set up the RCOUNT value, and it must, therefore, be
explicitly and correctly specified in the REPEAT instruc-
tion, as shown in Table 2-2 (REPEAT will execute the
target instruction {operand value + 1} times). The
REPEAT loop count must be set up for 18 iterations of
the DIV/DIVF instruction. Thus, a complete divide
operation requires 19 cycles.
2.4 DSP Engine
The DSP engine consists of a high-speed 17-bit x
17-bit multiplier, a barrel shifter, and a 40-bit adder/sub-
tracter (with two target accumulators, round and
saturation logic).
The DSP engine also has the capability to perform inher-
ent accumulator-to-accumulator operations, which
require no additional data. These instructions are ADD,
SUB, and NEG.
The DSP engine has various options selected through
various bits in the CPU Core Configuration Register
(CORCON), as listed below:
Fractional or integer DSP multiply (IF).
Signed or unsigned DSP multiply (US).
Conventional or convergent rounding (RND).
Automatic saturation on/off for ACCA (SATA).
Automatic saturation on/off for ACCB (SATB).
Automatic saturation on/off for writes to data
memory (SATDW).
Accumulator Saturation mode selection (ACC-
SAT).
A block diagram of the DSP engine is shown in
Figure 2-2.
TABLE 2-2: DIVIDE INSTRUCTIONS
Note: The Divide flow is interruptible; however,
the user needs to save the context as
appropriate.
Note: For CORCON layout, see Table 3-3.
TABLE 2-1: DSP INSTRUCTION
SUMMARY
Instruction Algebraic
Operation ACC WB?
CLR A = 0 Yes
ED A = (x – y)2No
EDAC A = A + (x – y)2No
MAC A = A + (x • y) Yes
MAC A = A + x2No
MOVSAC No change in A Yes
MPY A = x • y No
MPY.N A = – x • y No
MSC A = A – x • y Yes
Instruction Function
DIVF Signed fractional divide: Wm/Wn W0; Rem W1
DIV.sd Signed divide: (Wm + 1:Wm)/Wn W0; Rem W1
DIV.ud Unsigned divide: (Wm + 1:Wm)/Wn W0; Rem W1
DIV.sw (or DIV.s) Signed divide: Wm/Wn W0; Rem W1
DIV.uw (or DIV.u) Unsigned divide: Wm/Wn W0; Rem W1
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 15
dsPIC30F2010
FIGURE 2-2: DSP ENGINE BLOCK DIAGRAM
Zero Backfill
Sign-Extend
Barrel
Shifter
40-bit Accumulator A
40-bit Accumulator B Round
Logic
X Data Bus
To/From W Array
Adder
Saturate
Negate
32
32
33
16
16 16
16
40 40
40 40
S
a
t
u
r
a
t
e
Y Data Bus
40
Carry/Borrow Out
Carry/Borrow In
16
40
Multiplier/Scaler
17-bit
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 16 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.4.1 MULTIPLIER
The 17 x 17-bit multiplier is capable of signed or
unsigned operation and can multiplex its output
using a scaler to support either 1.31 fractional (Q31)
or 32-bit integer results. Unsigned operands are
zero-extended into the 17th bit of the multiplier input
value. Signed operands are sign-extended into the
17th bit of the multiplier input value. The output of
the 17 x 17-bit multiplier/scaler is a 33-bit value,
which is sign-extended to 40 bits. Integer data is
inherently represented as a signed two’s complement
value, where the MSB is defined as a sign bit.
Generally speaking, the range of an N-bit two’s
complement integer is -2N-1 to 2N-1 – 1. For a 16-bit
integer, the data range is -32768 (0x8000) to 32767
(0x7FFF), including ‘0’. For a 32-bit integer, the data
range is -2,147,483,648 (0x8000 0000) to
2,147,483,645 (0x7FFF FFFF).
When the multiplier is configured for fractional
multiplication, the data is represented as a two’s
complement fraction, where the MSB is defined as a
sign bit and the radix point is implied to lie just after the
sign bit (QX format). The range of an N-bit two’s
complement fraction with this implied radix point is -1.0
to (1-21-N). For a 16-bit fraction, the Q15 data range is
-1.0 (0x8000) to 0.999969482 (0x7FFF), including ‘0
and has a precision of 3.01518x10-5. In Fractional
mode, a 16x16 multiply operation generates a 1.31
product, which has a precision of 4.65661x10-10.
The same multiplier is used to support the MCU multi-
ply instructions, which include integer 16-bit signed,
unsigned and mixed sign multiplies.
The MUL instruction may be directed to use byte or
word-sized operands. Byte operands will direct a 16-bit
result, and word operands will direct a 32-bit result to
the specified register(s) in the W array.
2.4.2 DATA ACCUMULATORS AND
ADDER/SUBTRACTER
The data accumulator consists of a 40-bit adder/
subtracter with automatic sign extension logic. It can
select one of two accumulators (A or B) as its pre-
accumulation source and post-accumulation
destination. For the ADD and LAC instructions, the data
to be accumulated or loaded can be optionally scaled
via the barrel shifter, prior to accumulation.
2.4.2.1 Adder/Subtracter, Overflow and
Saturation
The adder/subtracter is a 40-bit adder with an optional
zero input into one side and either true or complement
data into the other input. In the case of addition, the
carry/borrow input is active high and the other input is
true data (not complemented), whereas in the case of
subtraction, the carry/borrow input is active low and the
other input is complemented. The adder/subtracter
generates overflow status bits SA/SB and OA/OB,
which are latched and reflected in the STATUS
Register.
Overflow from bit 39: this is a catastrophic
overflow in which the sign of the accumulator is
destroyed.
Overflow into guard bits 32 through 39: this is a
recoverable overflow. This bit is set whenever all
the guard bits are not identical to each other.
The adder has an additional saturation block which
controls accumulator data saturation, if selected. It
uses the result of the adder, the overflow status bits
described above, and the SATA/B (CORCON<7:6>)
and ACCSAT (CORCON<4>) mode control bits to
determine when and to what value to saturate.
Six STATUS register bits have been provided to
support saturation and overflow; they are:
1. OA:
ACCA overflowed into guard bits
2. OB:
ACCB overflowed into guard bits
3. SA:
ACCA saturated (bit 31 overflow and saturation)
or
ACCA overflowed into guard bits and saturated
(bit 39 overflow and saturation)
4. SB:
ACCB saturated (bit 31 overflow and saturation)
or
ACCB overflowed into guard bits and saturated
(bit 39 overflow and saturation)
5. OAB:
Logical OR of OA and OB
6. SAB:
Logical OR of SA and SB
The OA and OB bits are modified each time data
passes through the adder/subtracter. When set, they
indicate that the most recent operation has overflowed
into the accumulator guard bits (bits 32 through 39).
The OA and OB bits can also optionally generate an
arithmetic warning trap when set and the correspond-
ing overflow trap flag enable bit (OVATE, OVBTE) in
the INTCON1 register (refer to Section 5.0 “Inter-
rupts”) is set. This allows the user to take immediate
action, for example, to correct system gain.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 17
dsPIC30F2010
The SA and SB bits are modified each time data passes
through the adder/subtracter, but can only be cleared by
the user. When set, they indicate that the accumulator
has overflowed its maximum range (bit 31 for 32-bit
saturation, or bit 39 for 40-bit saturation) and will be
saturated (if saturation is enabled). When saturation is
not enabled, SA and SB default to bit 39 overflow and
thus indicate that a catastrophic overflow has occurred.
If the COVTE bit in the INTCON1 register is set, SA and
SB bits will generate an arithmetic warning trap when
saturation is disabled.
The overflow and saturation status bits can optionally
be viewed in the Status Register (SR) as the logical OR
of OA and OB (in bit OAB), and the logical OR of SA
and SB (in bit SAB). This allows programmers to check
one bit in the STATUS register to determine if either
accumulator has overflowed, or one bit to determine if
either accumulator has saturated. This would be useful
for complex number arithmetic which typically uses
both the accumulators.
The device supports three Saturation and Overflow
modes.
1. Bit 39 Overflow and Saturation:
When bit 39 overflow and saturation occurs, the
saturation logic loads the maximally positive 9.31
(0x7FFFFFFFFF) or maximally negative 9.31
value (0x8000000000) into the target accumula-
tor. The SA or SB bit is set and remains set until
cleared by the user. This is referred to as ‘super
saturation’ and provides protection against erro-
neous data or unexpected algorithm problems
(e.g., gain calculations).
2. Bit 31 Overflow and Saturation:
When bit 31 overflow and saturation occurs, the
saturation logic then loads the maximally positive
1.31 value (0x007FFFFFFF) or maximally nega-
tive 1.31 value (0x0080000000) into the target
accumulator. The SA or SB bit is set and remains
set until cleared by the user. When this Saturation
mode is in effect, the guard bits are not used (so
the OA, OB or OAB bits are never set).
3. Bit 39 Catastrophic Overflow
The bit 39 overflow status bit from the adder is
used to set the SA or SB bit, which remain set
until cleared by the user. No saturation operation
is performed and the accumulator is allowed to
overflow (destroying its sign). If the COVTE bit in
the INTCON1 register is set, a catastrophic
overflow can initiate a trap exception.
2.4.2.2 Accumulator ‘Write-Back’
The MAC class of instructions (with the exception of
MPY, MPY.N, ED and EDAC) can optionally write a
rounded version of the high word (bits 31 through 16)
of the accumulator that is not targeted by the instruction
into data space memory. The write is performed across
the X bus into combined X and Y address space. The
following addressing modes are supported:
1. W13, Register Direct:
The rounded contents of the non-target
accumulator are written into W13 as a 1.15
fraction.
2. [W13]+=2, Register Indirect with Post-Increment:
The rounded contents of the non-target accumu-
lator are written into the address pointed to by
W13 as a 1.15 fraction. W13 is then
incremented by 2 (for a word write).
2.4.2.3 Round Logic
The round logic is a combinational block, which
performs a conventional (biased) or convergent
(unbiased) round function during an accumulator write
(store). The Round mode is determined by the state of
the RND bit in the CORCON register. It generates a 16-
bit, 1.15 data value which is passed to the data space
write saturation logic. If rounding is not indicated by the
instruction, a truncated 1.15 data value is stored and the
least significant word (lsw) is simply discarded.
Conventional rounding takes bit 15 of the accumulator,
zero-extends it and adds it to the ACCxH word (bits 16
through 31 of the accumulator). If the ACCxL word (bits
0 through 15 of the accumulator) is between 0x8000
and 0xFFFF (0x8000 included), ACCxH is incre-
mented. If ACCxL is between 0x0000 and 0x7FFF,
ACCxH is left unchanged. A consequence of this
algorithm is that over a succession of random rounding
operations, the value will tend to be biased slightly
positive.
Convergent (or unbiased) rounding operates in the
same manner as conventional rounding, except when
ACCxL equals 0x8000. If this is the case, the Least Sig-
nificant bit (bit 16 of the accumulator) of ACCxH is
examined. If it is ‘1’, ACCxH is incremented. If it is ‘0’,
ACCxH is not modified. Assuming that bit 16 is effec-
tively random in nature, this scheme will remove any
rounding bias that may accumulate.
The SAC and SAC.R instructions store either a trun-
cated (SAC) or rounded (SAC.R) version of the contents
of the target accumulator to data memory, via the X bus
(subject to data saturation, see Section 2.4.2.4 “Data
Space Write Saturation”). Note that for the MAC class
of instructions, the accumulator write-back operation
will function in the same manner, addressing combined
MCU (X and Y) data space though the X bus. For this
class of instructions, the data is always subject to
rounding.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 18 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.4.2.4 Data Space Write Saturation
In addition to adder/subtracter saturation, writes to data
space may also be saturated, but without affecting the
contents of the source accumulator. The data space
write saturation logic block accepts a 16-bit, 1.15
fractional value from the round logic block as its input,
together with overflow status from the original source
(accumulator) and the 16-bit round adder. These are
combined and used to select the appropriate 1.15
fractional value as output to write to data space
memory.
If the SATDW bit in the CORCON register is set, data
(after rounding or truncation) is tested for overflow and
adjusted accordingly. For input data greater than
0x007FFF, data written to memory is forced to the
maximum positive 1.15 value, 0x7FFF. For input data
less than 0xFF8000, data written to memory is forced to
the maximum negative 1.15 value, 0x8000. The Most
Significant bit of the source (bit 39) is used to determine
the sign of the operand being tested.
If the SATDW bit in the CORCON register is not set, the
input data is always passed through unmodified under
all conditions.
2.4.3 BARREL SHIFTER
The barrel shifter is capable of performing up to 15-bit
arithmetic or logic right shifts, or up to 16-bit left shifts
in a single cycle. The source can be either of the two
DSP accumulators or the X bus (to support multi-bit
shifts of register or memory data).
The shifter requires a signed binary value to determine
both the magnitude (number of bits) and direction of the
shift operation. A positive value will shift the operand
right. A negative value will shift the operand left. A
value of 0 will not modify the operand.
The barrel shifter is 40 bits wide, thereby obtaining a
40-bit result for DSP shift operations and a 16-bit result
for MCU shift operations. Data from the X bus is pre-
sented to the barrel shifter between bit positions 16 to
31 for right shifts, and bit positions 0 to 15 for left shifts.
Flese| , Taruet Address Ex‘ 05c FaH Trap
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 19
dsPIC30F2010
3.0 MEMORY ORGANIZATION
3.1 Program Address Space
The program address space is 4M instruction words. It
is addressable by a 24-bit value from either the 23-bit
PC, table instruction Effective Address (EA), or data
space EA, when program space is mapped into data
space, as defined by Table 3-1. Note that the program
space address is incremented by two between succes-
sive program words, in order to provide compatibility
with data space addressing.
User program space access is restricted to the lower
4M instruction word address range (0x000000 to
0x7FFFFE), for all accesses other than TBLRD/TBLWT,
which use TBLPAG<7> to determine user or configura-
tion space access. In Table 3-1, Read/Write instruc-
tions, bit 23 allows access to the Device ID, the User ID
and the Configuration bits. Otherwise, bit 23 is always
clear.
FIGURE 3-1:
PROGRAM SPACE MEMORY
MAP FOR dsPIC30F2010
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046). For more information on the
device instruction set and programming,
refer to the “16-bit MCU and DSC Pro-
grammer’s Reference Manual”
(DS70157).
Note: The address map shown in Figure 3-1 is
conceptual, and the actual memory con-
figuration may vary across individual
devices depending on available memory.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 20 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 3-1: PROGRAM SPACE ADDRESS CONSTRUCTION
FIGURE 3-2: DATA ACCESS FROM PROGRAM SPACE ADDRESS GENERATION
Access Type Access
Space
Program Space Address
<23> <22:16> <15> <14:1> <0>
Instruction Access User 0 PC<22:1> 0
TBLRD/TBLWT User (TBLPAG<7> = 0) TBLPAG<7:0> Data EA <15:0>
TBLRD/TBLWT Configuration (TBLPAG<7> = 1) TBLPAG<7:0> Data EA <15:0>
Program Space Visibility User 0 PSVPAG<7:0> Data EA <14:0>
0Program Counter
23 bits
1
PSVPAG Reg
8 bits
EA
15 bits
Program
Using
Select
TBLPAG Reg
8 bits
EA
16 bits
Using
Byte
24-bit EA
0
0
1/0
Select
User/
Configuration
Table
Instruction
Program
Space
Counter
Using
Space
Select
Note: Program Space Visibility cannot be used to access bits <23:16> of a word in program memory.
Visibility
OXOOOOOA XOOOOOG
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 21
dsPIC30F2010
3.1.1 DATA ACCESS FROM PROGRAM
MEMORY USING TABLE
INSTRUCTIONS
This architecture fetches 24-bit wide program memory.
Consequently, instructions are always aligned. How-
ever, as the architecture is modified Harvard, data can
also be present in program space.
There are two methods by which program space can
be accessed: via special table instructions, or through
the remapping of a 16K word program space page into
the upper half of data space (see Section 3.1.2 “Data
Access from Program Memory Using Program
Space Visibility”). The TBLRDL and TBLWTL instruc-
tions offer a direct method of reading or writing the lsw
of any address within program space, without going
through data space. The TBLRDH and TBLWTH instruc-
tions are the only method whereby the upper 8 bits of a
program space word can be accessed as data.
The PC is incremented by two for each successive
24-bit program word. This allows program memory
addresses to directly map to data space addresses.
Program memory can thus be regarded as two 16-bit
word wide address spaces, residing side by side, each
with the same address range. TBLRDL and TBLWTL
access the space which contains the least significant
data word, and TBLRDH and TBLWTH access the space
which contains the Most Significant data Byte.
Figure 3-2 shows how the EA is created for table oper-
ations and data space accesses (PSV = 1). Here,
P<23:0> refers to a program space word, whereas
D<15:0> refers to a data space word.
A set of Table Instructions are provided to move byte or
word-sized data to and from program space.
1. TBLRDL: Table Read Low
Word: Read the least significant word of the
program address;
P<15:0> maps to D<15:0>.
Byte: Read one of the LSBs of the program
address;
P<7:0> maps to the destination byte when byte
select = 0;
P<15:8> maps to the destination byte when byte
select = 1.
2. TBLWTL: Table Write Low (refer to Section 6.0
“Flash Program Memory” for details on Flash
Programming).
3. TBLRDH: Table Read High
Word: Read the most significant word of the
program address;
P<23:16> maps to D<7:0>; D<15:8> always
be = 0.
Byte: Read one of the MSBs of the program
address;
P<23:16> maps to the destination byte when
byte select = 0;
The destination byte will always be = 0 when
byte select = 1.
4. TBLWTH: Table Write High (refer to Section 6.0
“Flash Program Memory” for details on Flash
Programming).
FIGURE 3-3: PROGRAM DATA TABLE ACCESS (LEAST SIGNIFICANT WORD)
0
8
16
PC Address
0x000000
0x000002
0x000004
0x000006
23
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
Program Memory
‘Phantom’ Byte
(Read as ‘0’)
TBLRDL.W
TBLRDL.B (Wn<0> = 1)
TBLRDL.B (Wn<0> = 0)
x000004 00°90 XOOOOOG 000 000
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 22 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 3-4: PROGRAM DATA TABLE ACCESS (MOST SIGNIFICANT BYTE)
3.1.2 DATA ACCESS FROM PROGRAM
MEMORY USING PROGRAM SPACE
VISIBILITY
The upper 32 Kbytes of data space may optionally be
mapped into any 16K word program space page. This
provides transparent access of stored constant data
from X data space, without the need to use special
instructions (i.e., TBLRDL/H, TBLWTL/H instructions).
Program space access through the data space occurs
if the MSb of the data space EA is set and program
space visibility is enabled, by setting the PSV bit in the
Core Control register (CORCON). The functions of
CORCON are discussed in Section 2.4 “DSP
Engine”.
Data accesses to this area add an additional cycle to
the instruction being executed, since two program
memory fetches are required.
Note that the upper half of addressable data space is
always part of the X data space. Therefore, when a
DSP operation uses program space mapping to access
this memory region, Y data space should typically con-
tain state (variable) data for DSP operations, whereas
X data space should typically contain coefficient
(constant) data.
Although each data space address, 0x8000 and higher,
maps directly into a corresponding program memory
address (see Figure 3-5), only the lower 16-bits of the
24-bit program word are used to contain the data. The
upper 8 bits should be programmed to force an illegal
instruction to maintain machine robustness. Refer to
the “16-bit MCU and DSC Programmer’s Reference
Manual” (DS70157) for details on instruction encoding.
Note that by incrementing the PC by 2 for each pro-
gram memory word, the Least Significant 15 bits of
data space addresses directly map to the Least Signif-
icant 15 bits in the corresponding program space
addresses. The remaining bits are provided by the Pro-
gram Space Visibility Page register, PSVPAG<7:0>, as
shown in Figure 3-5.
For instructions that use PSV which are executed
outside a REPEAT loop:
The following instructions will require one instruc-
tion cycle in addition to the specified execution
time:
-MAC class of instructions with data operand
prefetch
-MOV instructions
-MOV.D instructions
All other instructions will require two instruction
cycles in addition to the specified execution time
of the instruction.
For instructions that use PSV which are executed
inside a REPEAT loop:
The following instances will require two instruction
cycles in addition to the specified execution time
of the instruction:
- Execution in the first iteration
- Execution in the last iteration
- Execution prior to exiting the loop due to an
interrupt
- Execution upon re-entering the loop after an
interrupt is serviced
Any other iteration of the REPEAT loop will allow
the instruction, accessing data using PSV, to
execute in a single cycle.
0
8
16
PC Address
0x000000
0x000002
0x000004
0x000006
23
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
Program Memory
‘Phantom’ Byte
(Read as ‘0’)
TBLRDH.W
TBLRDH.B (Wn<0> = 1)
TBLRDH.B (Wn<0> = 0)
Note: PSV access is temporarily disabled during
table reads/writes.
0x0
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 23
dsPIC30F2010
FIGURE 3-5: DATA SPACE WINDOW INTO PROGRAM SPACE OPERATION
3.2 Data Address Space
The core has two data spaces. The data spaces can be
considered either separate (for some DSP instruc-
tions), or as one unified linear address range (for MCU
instructions). The data spaces are accessed using two
Address Generation Units (AGUs) and separate data
paths.
3.2.1 DATA SPACE MEMORY MAP
The data space memory is split into two blocks, X and
Y data space. A key element of this architecture is that
Y space is a subset of X space, and is fully contained
within X space. In order to provide an apparent linear
addressing space, X and Y spaces have contiguous
addresses.
When executing any instruction other than one of the
MAC class of instructions, the X block consists of the
256 byte data address space (including all Y
addresses). When executing one of the MAC class of
instructions, the X block consists of the 256 bytes data
address space excluding the Y address block (for data
reads only). In other words, all other instructions regard
the entire data memory as one composite address
space. The MAC class instructions extract the Y
address space from data space and address it using
EAs sourced from W10 and W11. The remaining X data
space is addressed using W8 and W9. Both address
spaces are concurrently accessed only with the MAC
class instructions.
A data space memory map is shown in Figure 3-6.
23 15 0
PSVPAG(1)
15
15
EA<15> =
0
EA<15> = 1
16
Data
Space
EA
Data Space Program Space
8
15 23
0x0000
0x8000
0xFFFF
0x00
0x100100
0x001FFE
Data Read
Upper half of Data
Space is mapped
into Program Space
Note: PSVPAG is an 8-bit register, containing bits <22:15> of the program space address
(i.e., it defines the page in program space to which the upper half of data space is being mapped).
0x001200
Address
Concatenation
BSET CORCON,#2 ; PSV bit set
MOV #0x00, W0 ; Set PSVPAG register
MOV W0, PSVPAG
MOV 0x9200, W0 ; Access program memory location
; using a data space access
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 24 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 3-6: DATA SPACE MEMORY MAP
0x0000
0x07FE
0x08FE
0xFFFE
LSB
Address
16 bits
LSBMSB
MSB
Address
0x0001
0x07FF
0x08FF
0xFFFF
0x8001 0x8000
Optionally
Mapped
into Program
Memory
0x09FF 0x0A00
0x0801 0x0800
0x0901 0x0900
Near
Data
SFR Space
512 bytes
SRAM Space
2560 bytes
Note: Unimplemented SFR or SRAM locations read as ‘0’.
Space
Unimplemented (X)
X Data
SFR Space
X Data RAM (X)
Y Data RAM (Y)
(See Note)
256 bytes
256 bytes
(See Note)
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 25
dsPIC30F2010
FIGURE 3-7: DATA SPACE FOR MCU AND DSP (MAC CLASS) INSTRUCTIONS
SFR Space
(Y Space)
X Space
SFR Space
Unused
X Space
X Space
Y Space
Unused
Unused
Non-MAC Class Ops (Read/Write) MAC Class Ops Read-Only
Indirect EA using any W Indirect EA using W8, W9 Indirect EA using W10, W11
MAC Class Ops (Write)
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 26 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
3.2.2 DATA SPACES
The X data space is used by all instructions and sup-
ports all addressing modes. There are separate read
and write data buses. The X read data bus is the return
data path for all instructions that view data space as
combined X and Y address space. It is also the X
address space data path for the dual operand read
instructions (MAC class). The X write data bus is the
only write path to data space for all instructions.
The X data space also supports Modulo Addressing for
all instructions, subject to addressing mode restric-
tions. Bit-Reversed addressing is only supported for
writes to X data space.
The Y data space is used in concert with the X data
space by the MAC class of instructions (CLR, ED, EDAC,
MAC, MOVSAC, MPY, MPY.N and MSC) to provide two
concurrent data read paths. No writes occur across the
Y bus. This class of instructions dedicates two W reg-
ister pointers, W10 and W11, to always address Y data
space, independent of X data space, whereas W8 and
W9 always address X data space. Note that during
accumulator write-back, the data address space is con-
sidered a combination of X and Y data spaces, so the
write occurs across the X bus. Consequently, the write
can be to any address in the entire data space.
The Y data space can only be used for the data
prefetch operation associated with the MAC class of
instructions. It also supports Modulo Addressing for
automated circular buffers. Of course, all other instruc-
tions can access the Y data address space through the
X data path, as part of the composite linear space.
The boundary between the X and Y data spaces is
defined as shown in Figure 3-6 and is not user pro-
grammable. Should an EA point to data outside its own
assigned address space, or to a location outside phys-
ical memory, an all-zero word/byte will be returned. For
example, although Y address space is visible by all
non-MAC instructions using any Addressing mode, an
attempt by a MAC instruction to fetch data from that
space, using W8 or W9 (X space pointers), will return
0x0000.
TABLE 3-2: EFFECT OF INVALID
MEMORY ACCESSES
All effective addresses are 16 bits wide and point to
bytes within the data space. Therefore, the data space
address range is 64 Kbytes or 32K words.
3.2.3 DATA SPACE WIDTH
The core data width is 16 bits. All internal registers are
organized as 16-bit wide words. Data space memory is
organized in byte addressable, 16-bit wide blocks.
3.2.4 DATA ALIGNMENT
To help maintain backward compatibility with PIC®
MCU devices and improve data space memory usage
efficiency, the dsPIC30F instruction set supports both
word and byte operations. Data is aligned in data mem-
ory and registers as words, but all data space EAs
resolve to bytes. Data byte reads will read the complete
word, which contains the byte, using the LSb of any EA
to determine which byte to select. The selected byte is
placed onto the LSB of the X data path (no byte
accesses are possible from the Y data path as the MAC
class of instruction can only fetch words). That is, data
memory and registers are organized as two parallel
byte wide entities with shared (word) address decode,
but separate write lines. Data byte writes only write to
the corresponding side of the array or register which
matches the byte address.
As a consequence of this byte accessibility, all effec-
tive address calculations (including those generated
by the DSP operations, which are restricted to word-
sized data) are internally scaled to step through
word-aligned memory. For example, the core would
recognize that Post-Modified Register Indirect
Addressing mode, [Ws ++], will result in a value of
Ws + 1 for byte operations and Ws + 2 for word
operations.
All word accesses must be aligned to an even address.
Misaligned word data fetches are not supported, so
care must be taken when mixing byte and word opera-
tions, or translating from 8-bit MCU code. Should a mis-
aligned read or write be attempted, an address error
trap will be generated. If the error occurred on a read,
the instruction underway is completed, whereas if it
occurred on a write, the instruction will be executed but
the write will not occur. In either case, a trap will then
be executed, allowing the system and/or user to exam-
ine the machine state prior to execution of the address
fault.
FIGURE 3-8: DATA ALIGNMENT
Attempted Operation Data Returned
EA = an unimplemented address 0x0000
W8 or W9 used to access Y data
space in a MAC instruction 0x0000
W10 or W11 used to access X
data space in a MAC instruction 0x0000
15 8 7 0
0001
0003
0005
0000
0002
0004
Byte 1 Byte 0
Byte 3 Byte 2
Byte 5 Byte 4
LSBMSB
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 27
dsPIC30F2010
All byte loads into any W register are loaded into the
LSB. The MSB is not modified.
A sign-extend (SE) instruction is provided to allow
users to translate 8-bit signed data to 16-bit signed
values. Alternatively, for 16-bit unsigned data, users
can clear the MSB of any W register by executing a
zero-extend (ZE) instruction on the appropriate
address.
Although most instructions are capable of operating on
word or byte data sizes, it should be noted that some
instructions, including the DSP instructions, operate
only on words.
3.2.5 NEAR DATA SPACE
An 8 Kbyte ‘near data space is reserved in X address
memory space between 0x0000 and 0x1FFF, which is
directly addressable via a 13-bit absolute address field
within all memory direct instructions. The remaining X
address space and all of the Y address space is
addressable indirectly. Additionally, the whole of X data
space is addressable using MOV instructions, which
support memory direct addressing with a 16-bit
address field.
3.2.6 SOFTWARE STACK
The dsPIC DSC device contains a software stack. W15
is used as the Stack Pointer.
The Stack Pointer always points to the first available
free word, and grows from lower addresses towards
higher addresses. It pre-decrements for stack pops,
and post-increments for stack pushes, as shown in
Figure 3-9. Note that for a PC push during any CALL
instruction, the MSB of the PC is zero-extended before
the push, ensuring that the MSB is always clear.
There is a Stack Pointer Limit register (SPLIM) associ-
ated with the Stack Pointer. SPLIM is uninitialized at
Reset. As is the case for the Stack Pointer, SPLIM<0>
is forced to ‘0’, because all stack operations must be
word-aligned. Whenever an EA is generated using
W15 as a source or destination pointer, the address
thus generated is compared with the value in SPLIM. If
the contents of the Stack Pointer (W15) and the SPLIM
register are equal and a push operation is performed, a
stack error trap will not occur. The stack error trap will
occur on a subsequent push operation. Thus, for exam-
ple, if it is desirable to cause a stack error trap when the
stack grows beyond address 0x2000 in RAM, initialize
the SPLIM with the value, 0x1FFE.
Similarly, a stack pointer underflow (stack error) trap is
generated when the Stack Pointer address is found to
be less than 0x0800, thus preventing the stack from
interfering with the Special Function Register (SFR)
space.
A write to the SPLIM register should not be immediately
followed by an indirect read operation using W15.
FIGURE 3-9: CALL STACK FRAME
Note: A PC push during exception processing
will concatenate the SRL register to the
MSB of the PC prior to the push.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 28 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 3-3: CORE REGISTER MAP
SFR Name Address
(Home) Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
W0 0000 W0 / WREG 0000 0000 0000 0000
W1 0002 W1 0000 0000 0000 0000
W2 0004 W2 0000 0000 0000 0000
W3 0006 W3 0000 0000 0000 0000
W4 0008 W4 0000 0000 0000 0000
W5 000A W5 0000 0000 0000 0000
W6 000C W6 0000 0000 0000 0000
W7 000E W7 0000 0000 0000 0000
W8 0010 W8 0000 0000 0000 0000
W9 0012 W9 0000 0000 0000 0000
W10 0014 W10 0000 0000 0000 0000
W11 0016 W11 0000 0000 0000 0000
W12 0018 W12 0000 0000 0000 0000
W13 001A W13 0000 0000 0000 0000
W14 001C W14 0000 0000 0000 0000
W15 001E W15 0000 1000 0000 0000
SPLIM 0020 SPLIM 0000 0000 0000 0000
ACCAL 0022 ACCAL 0000 0000 0000 0000
ACCAH 0024 ACCAH 0000 0000 0000 0000
ACCAU 0026 Sign Extension (ACCA<39>) ACCAU 0000 0000 0000 0000
ACCBL 0028 ACCBL 0000 0000 0000 0000
ACCBH 002A ACCBH 0000 0000 0000 0000
ACCBU 002C Sign Extension (ACCB<39>) ACCBU 0000 0000 0000 0000
PCL 002E PCL 0000 0000 0000 0000
PCH 0030 — — — — — —PCH
0000 0000 0000 0000
TBLPAG 0032 — — — —TBLPAG
0000 0000 0000 0000
PSVPAG 0034 — — — PSVPAG 0000 0000 0000 0000
RCOUNT 0036 RCOUNT uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
DCOUNT 0038 DCOUNT uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
DOSTARTL 003A DOSTARTL 0uuuu uuuu uuuu uuu0
DOSTARTH 003C — — — — — —DOSTARTH
0000 0000 0uuu uuuu
DOENDL 003E DOENDL 0uuuu uuuu uuuu uuu0
DOENDH 0040 — — — — — DOENDH 0000 0000 0uuu uuuu
SR 0042 OA OB SA SB OAB SAB DA DC IPL2 IPL1 IPL0 RA N OV Z C 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: u = uninitialized bit; — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 29
dsPIC30F2010
CORCON 0044 US EDT DL2 DL1 DL0 SATA SATB SATDW ACCSAT IPL3 PSV RND IF 0000 0000 0010 0000
MODCON 0046 XMODEN YMODEN BWM<3:0> YWM<3:0> XWM<3:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
XMODSRT 0048 XS<15:1> 0uuuu uuuu uuuu uuu0
XMODEND 004A XE<15:1> 1uuuu uuuu uuuu uuu1
YMODSRT 004C YS<15:1> 0uuuu uuuu uuuu uuu0
YMODEND 004E YE<15:1> 1uuuu uuuu uuuu uuu1
XBREV 0050 BREN XB<14:0> uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
DISICNT 0052 DISICNT<13:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
TABLE 3-3: CORE REGISTER MAP (CONTINUED)
SFR Name Address
(Home) Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
Legend: u = uninitialized bit; — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 30 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 31
dsPIC30F2010
4.0 ADDRESS GENERATOR UNITS
The dsPIC DSC core contains two independent
address generator units: the X AGU and Y AGU. The Y
AGU supports word-sized data reads for the DSP MAC
class of instructions only. The dsPIC DSC AGUs
support three types of data addressing:
Linear Addressing
Modulo (Circular) Addressing
Bit-Reversed Addressing
Linear and Modulo Data Addressing modes can be
applied to data space or program space. Bit-Reversed
Addressing is only applicable to data space addresses.
4.1 Instruction Addressing Modes
The Addressing modes in Table 4-1 form the basis of
the Addressing modes optimized to support the specific
features of individual instructions. The Addressing
modes provided in the MAC class of instructions are
somewhat different from those in the other instruction
types.
4.1.1 FILE REGISTER INSTRUCTIONS
Most file register instructions use a 13-bit address field
(f) to directly address data present in the first 8192
bytes of data memory (near data space). Most file
register instructions employ a working register W0,
which is denoted as WREG in these instructions. The
destination is typically either the same file register, or
WREG (with the exception of the MUL instruction),
which writes the result to a register or register pair. The
MOV instruction allows additional flexibility and can
access the entire data space.
TABLE 4-1: FUNDAMENTAL ADDRESSING MODES SUPPORTED
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual”
(DS70046). For more information on the
device instruction set and programming,
refer to the “16-bit MCU and DSC Pro-
grammer’s Reference Manual”
(DS70157).
Addressing Mode Description
File Register Direct The address of the file register is specified explicitly.
Register Direct The contents of a register are accessed directly.
Register Indirect The contents of Wn forms the Effective Address (EA).
Register Indirect Post-modified The contents of Wn forms the EA. Wn is post-modified (incremented or
decremented) by a constant value.
Register Indirect Pre-modified Wn is pre-modified (incremented or decremented) by a signed constant
value to form the EA.
Register Indirect with Register Offset The sum of Wn and Wb forms the EA.
Register Indirect with Literal Offset The sum of Wn and a literal forms the EA.
H W
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 32 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
4.1.2 MCU INSTRUCTIONS
The three-operand MCU instructions are of the form:
Operand 3 = Operand 1 <function> Operand 2
where Operand 1 is always a working register (i.e., the
Addressing mode can only be register direct), which is
referred to as Wb. Operand 2 can be a W register,
fetched from data memory, or 5-bit literal. The result
location can be either a W register or an address
location. The following Addressing modes are
supported by MCU instructions:
Register Direct
Register Indirect
Register Indirect Post-modified
Register Indirect Pre-modified
5-bit or 10-bit Literal
4.1.3 MOVE AND ACCUMULATOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Move instructions and the DSP Accumulator class of
instructions provide a greater degree of addressing
flexibility than other instructions. In addition to the
Addressing modes supported by most MCU instruc-
tions, Move and Accumulator instructions also support
Register Indirect with Register Offset Addressing
mode, also referred to as Register Indexed mode.
In summary, the following Addressing modes are
supported by Move and Accumulator instructions:
Register Direct
Register Indirect
Register Indirect Post-modified
Register Indirect Pre-modified
Register Indirect with Register Offset (Indexed)
Register Indirect with Literal Offset
8-bit Literal
16-bit Literal
4.1.4 MAC INSTRUCTIONS
The dual source operand DSP instructions (CLR, ED,
EDAC, MAC, MPY, MPY.N, MOVSAC and MSC), also
referred to as MAC instructions, utilize a simplified set of
Addressing modes to allow the user to effectively
manipulate the data pointers through register indirect
tables.
The two source operand prefetch registers must be a
member of the set {W8, W9, W10, W11}. For data
reads, W8 and W9 will always be directed to the X
RAGU and W10 and W11 will always be directed to the
Y AGU. The effective addresses generated (before and
after modification) must, therefore, be valid addresses
within X data space for W8 and W9 and Y data space
for W10 and W11.
In summary, the following Addressing modes are
supported by the MAC class of instructions:
Register Indirect
Register Indirect Post-modified by 2
Register Indirect Post-modified by 4
Register Indirect Post-modified by 6
Register Indirect with Register Offset (Indexed)
4.1.5 OTHER INSTRUCTIONS
Besides the various Addressing modes outlined above,
some instructions use literal constants of various sizes.
For example, BRA (branch) instructions use 16-bit
signed literals to specify the branch destination directly,
whereas the DISI instruction uses a 14-bit unsigned
literal field. In some instructions, such as ADD Acc, the
source of an operand or result is implied by the opcode
itself. Certain operations, such as NOP, do not have any
operands.
Note: Not all instructions support all the
Addressing modes given above. Individ-
ual instructions may support different
subsets of these Addressing modes.
Note: For the MOV instructions, the Addressing
mode specified in the instruction can differ
for the source and destination EA. How-
ever, the 4-bit Wb (Register Offset) field is
shared between both source and
destination (but typically only used by
one).
Note: Not all instructions support all the
Addressing modes given above. Individ-
ual instructions may support different
subsets of these Addressing modes.
Note: Register Indirect with Register Offset
Addressing is only available for W9 (in X
space) and W11 (in Y space).
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 33
dsPIC30F2010
4.2 Modulo Addressing
Modulo addressing is a method of providing an auto-
mated means to support circular data buffers using
hardware. The objective is to remove the need for soft-
ware to perform data address boundary checks when
executing tightly looped code, as is typical in many
DSP algorithms.
Modulo addressing can operate in either data or
program space (since the data pointer mechanism is
essentially the same for both). One circular buffer can
be supported in each of the X (which also provides the
pointers into Program space) and Y data spaces.
Modulo addressing can operate on any W register
pointer. However, it is not advisable to use W14 or W15
for Modulo Addressing, since these two registers are
used as the Stack Frame Pointer and Stack Pointer,
respectively.
In general, any particular circular buffer can only be
configured to operate in one direction, as there are
certain restrictions on the buffer start address (for
incrementing buffers) or end address (for decrementing
buffers) based upon the direction of the buffer.
The only exception to the usage restrictions is for
buffers which have a power-of-2 length. As these
buffers satisfy the start and end address criteria, they
may operate in a Bidirectional mode, (i.e., address
boundary checks will be performed on both the lower
and upper address boundaries).
4.2.1 START AND END ADDRESS
The Modulo Addressing scheme requires that a
starting and an end address be specified and loaded
into the 16-bit modulo buffer address registers:
XMODSRT, XMODEND, YMODSRT and YMODEND
(see Table 3-3).
The length of a circular buffer is not directly specified. It
is determined by the difference between the corre-
sponding start and end addresses. The maximum
possible length of the circular buffer is 32K words
(64 Kbytes).
4.2.2 W ADDRESS REGISTER
SELECTION
The Modulo and Bit-Reversed Addressing Control reg-
ister MODCON<15:0> contains enable flags as well as
a W register field to specify the W address registers.
The XWM and YWM fields select which registers will
operate with Modulo Addressing. If XWM = 15, X
RAGU and X WAGU Modulo Addressing are disabled.
Similarly, if YWM = 15, Y AGU Modulo Addressing is
disabled.
The X Address Space Pointer W register (XWM) to
which Modulo Addressing is to be applied, is stored in
MODCON<3:0> (see Table 3-3). Modulo addressing is
enabled for X data space when XWM is set to any value
other than 15 and the XMODEN bit is set at
MODCON<15>.
The Y Address Space Pointer W register (YWM) to
which Modulo Addressing is to be applied, is stored in
MODCON<7:4>. Modulo addressing is enabled for Y
data space when YWM is set to any value other than 15
and the YMODEN bit is set at MODCON<14>.
Note: Y space Modulo Addressing EA calcula-
tions assume word-sized data (LSb of
every EA is always clear).
k.)
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 34 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 4-1: MODULO ADDRESSING OPERATION EXAMPLE
0x1100
0x1163
Start Addr = 0x1100
End Addr = 0x1163
Length = 0x0032 words
Byte
Address MOV #0x1100,W0
MOV W0, XMODSRT ;set modulo start address
MOV #0x1163,W0
MOV W0,MODEND ;set modulo end address
MOV #0x8001,W0
MOV W0,MODCON ;enable W1, X AGU for modulo
MOV #0x0000,W0 ;W0 holds buffer fill value
MOV #0x1110,W1 ;point W1 to buffer
DO AGAIN,#0x31 ;fill the 50 buffer locations
MOV W0, [W1++] ;fill the next location
AGAIN: INC W0,W0 ;increment the fill value
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 35
dsPIC30F2010
4.2.3 MODULO ADDRESSING
APPLICABILITY
Modulo addressing can be applied to the effective
address calculation associated with any W register. It is
important to realize that the address boundaries check
for addresses less than or greater than the upper (for
incrementing buffers) and lower (for decrementing buf-
fers) boundary addresses (not just equal to). Address
changes may, therefore, jump beyond boundaries and
still be adjusted correctly.
4.3 Bit-Reversed Addressing
Bit-Reversed Addressing is intended to simplify data
reordering for radix-2 FFT algorithms. It is supported by
the X AGU for data writes only.
The modifier, which may be a constant value or register
contents, is regarded as having its bit order reversed.
The address source and destination are kept in normal
order. Thus, the only operand requiring reversal is the
modifier.
4.3.1 BIT-REVERSED ADDRESSING
IMPLEMENTATION
Bit-Reversed Addressing is enabled when:
1. BWM (W register selection) in the MODCON
register is any value other than 15 (the stack can
not be accessed using Bit-Reversed
Addressing) and
2. the BREN bit is set in the XBREV register and
3. the Addressing mode used is Register Indirect
with Pre-Increment or Post-Increment.
If the length of a bit-reversed buffer is M = 2N bytes,
then the last ‘N’ bits of the data buffer start address
must be zeros.
XB<14:0> is the bit-reversed address modifier or ‘pivot
point’ which is typically a constant. In the case of an
FFT computation, its value is equal to half of the FFT
data buffer size.
When enabled, Bit-Reversed Addressing will only be
executed for register indirect with pre-increment or
post-increment addressing and word-sized data writes.
It will not function for any other addressing mode or for
byte-sized data, and normal addresses will be gener-
ated instead. When Bit-Reversed Addressing is active,
the W Address Pointer will always be added to the
address modifier (XB) and the offset associated with
the register Indirect Addressing mode will be ignored.
In addition, as word-sized data is a requirement, the
LSb of the EA is ignored (and always clear).
If Bit-Reversed Addressing has already been enabled
by setting the BREN (XBREV<15>) bit, then a write to
the XBREV register should not be immediately followed
by an indirect read operation using the W register that
has been designated as the bit-reversed pointer.
FIGURE 4-2: BIT-REVERSED ADDRESS EXAMPLE
Note: The modulo corrected effective address is
written back to the register only when Pre-
Modify or Post-Modify Addressing mode is
used to compute the effective address.
When an address offset (e.g., [W7 + W2])
is used, modulo address correction is per-
formed, but the contents of the register
remains unchanged.
Note: All Bit-Reversed EA calculations assume
word-sized data (LSb of every EA is
always clear). The XB value is scaled
accordingly to generate compatible (byte)
addresses.
Note: Modulo addressing and Bit-Reversed
Addressing should not be enabled
together. In the event that the user
attempts to do this, bit reversed address-
ing will assume priority when active for the
X WAGU, and X WAGU Modulo Address-
ing will be disabled. However, Modulo
Addressing will continue to function in the
X RAGU.
b3 b2 b1 0
b2 b3 b4 0
Bit Locations Swapped Left-to-Right
Around Center of Binary Value
Bit-Reversed Address
XB = 0x0008 for a 16-word Bit-Reversed Buffer
b7 b6 b5 b1
b7 b6 b5 b4b11 b10 b9 b8
b11 b10 b9 b8
b15 b14 b13 b12
b15 b14 b13 b12
Sequential Address
Pivot Point
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 36 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 4-2: BIT-REVERSED ADDRESS SEQUENCE (16-ENTRY)
TABLE 4-3: BIT-REVERSED ADDRESS MODIFIER VALUES FOR XBREV REGISTER
Normal
Address Bit-Reversed
Address
A3 A2 A1 A0 Decimal A3 A2 A1 A0 Decimal
0000 00000 0
0001 11000 8
0010 20100 4
0011 31100 12
0100 40010 2
0101 51010 10
0110 60110 6
0111 71110 14
1000 80001 1
1001 91001 9
1010 10 0101 5
1011 11 1101 13
1100 12 0011 3
1101 13 1011 11
1110 14 0111 7
1111 15 1111 15
Buffer Size (Words) XB<14:0> Bit-Reversed Address Modifier Value(1)
32768 0x4000
16384 0x2000
8192 0x1000
4096 0x0800
2048 0x0400
1024 0x0200
512 0x0100
256 0x0080
128 0x0040
64 0x0020
32 0x0010
16 0x0008
8 0x0004
4 0x0002
2 0x0001
Note 1: Modifier values greater than 256 words exceed the data memory available on the dsPIC30F2010 device.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 37
dsPIC30F2010
5.0 INTERRUPTS
The dsPIC30F2010 has 24 interrupt sources and four
processor exceptions (traps), which must be arbitrated
based on a priority scheme.
The CPU is responsible for reading the Interrupt Vec-
tor Table (IVT) and transferring the address contained
in the interrupt vector to the program counter. The
interrupt vector is transferred from the program data
bus into the program counter, via a 24-bit wide
multiplexer on the input of the program counter.
The Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) and Alternate Inter-
rupt Vector Table (AIVT) are placed near the beginning
of program memory (0x000004). The IVT and AIVT
are shown in Figure 5-1.
The interrupt controller is responsible for pre-
processing the interrupts and processor exceptions,
prior to their being presented to the processor core.
The peripheral interrupts and traps are enabled, priori-
tized and controlled using centralized special function
registers:
IFS0<15:0>, IFS1<15:0>, IFS2<15:0>
All interrupt request flags are maintained in these
three registers. The flags are set by their respective
peripherals or external signals, and they are cleared
via software.
IEC0<15:0>, IEC1<15:0>, IEC2<15:0>
All interrupt enable control bits are maintained in
these three registers. These control bits are used to
individually enable interrupts from the peripherals or
external signals.
IPC0<15:0>... IPC11<7:0>
The user-assignable priority level associated with
each of these interrupts is held centrally in these
twelve registers.
IPL<3:0> The current CPU priority level is explicitly
stored in the IPL bits. IPL<3> is present in the
CORCON register, whereas IPL<2:0> are present in
the STATUS Register (SR) in the processor core.
INTCON1<15:0>, INTCON2<15:0>
Global interrupt control functions are derived from
these two registers. INTCON1 contains the control
and status flags for the processor exceptions. The
INTCON2 register controls the external interrupt
request signal behavior and the use of the alternate
vector table.
All interrupt sources can be user-assigned to one of
seven priority levels, 1 through 7, via the IPCx
registers. Each interrupt source is associated with an
interrupt vector, as shown in Figure 5-1. Levels 7 and
1 represent the highest and lowest maskable priorities,
respectively.
If the NSTDIS bit (INTCON1<15>) is set, nesting of
interrupts is prevented. Thus, if an interrupt is currently
being serviced, processing of a new interrupt is
prevented, even if the new interrupt is of higher priority
than the one currently being serviced.
Certain interrupts have specialized control bits for
features like edge or level triggered interrupts, inter-
rupt-on-change, etc. Control of these features remains
within the peripheral module which generates the
interrupt.
The DISI instruction can be used to disable the
processing of interrupts of priorities 6 and lower for a
certain number of instructions, during which the DISI bit
(INTCON2<14>) remains set.
When an interrupt is serviced, the PC is loaded with the
address stored in the vector location in Program Mem-
ory that corresponds to the interrupt. There are 63 dif-
ferent vectors within the IVT (refer to Figure 5-1). These
vectors are contained in locations 0x000004 through
0x0000FE of program memory (refer to Figure 5-1).
These locations contain 24-bit addresses, and in order
to preserve robustness, an address error trap will take
place should the PC attempt to fetch any of these
words during normal execution. This prevents execu-
tion of random data as a result of accidentally decre-
menting a PC into vector space, accidentally mapping
a data space address into vector space or the PC roll-
ing over to 0x000000 after reaching the end of imple-
mented program memory space. Execution of a GOTO
instruction to this vector space will also generate an
address error trap.
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046). For more information on the
device instruction set and programming,
refer to the “16-bit MCU and DSC Pro-
grammer’s Reference Manual”
(DS70157).
Note: Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit. User soft-
ware should ensure the appropriate inter-
rupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an
interrupt.
Note: Assigning a priority level of 0 to an inter-
rupt source is equivalent to disabling that
interrupt.
Note: The IPL bits become read-only whenever
the NSTDIS bit has been set to ‘1’.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 38 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
5.1 Interrupt Priority
The user-assignable Interrupt Priority (IP<2:0>) bits for
each individual interrupt source are located in the Least
Significant 3 bits of each nibble, within the IPCx regis-
ter(s). Bit 3 of each nibble is not used and is read as a
0’. These bits define the priority level assigned to a
particular interrupt by the user.
Since more than one interrupt request source may be
assigned to a specific user-assigned priority level, a
means is provided to assign priority within a given level.
This method is called “Natural Order Priority” and is
final.
Natural Order Priority is determined by the position of
an interrupt in the vector table, and only affects
interrupt operation when multiple interrupts with the
same user-assigned priority become pending at the
same time.
Table 5-1 lists the interrupt numbers and interrupt
sources for the dsPIC DSC devices and their
associated vector numbers.
The ability for the user to assign every interrupt to one
of seven priority levels means that the user can assign
a very high overall priority level to an interrupt with a
low natural order priority. For example, the PLVD (Low-
Voltage Detect) can be given a priority of 7. The INT0
(external interrupt 0) may be assigned to priority
level 1, thus giving it a very low effective priority.
TABLE 5-1: dsPIC30F2010 INTERRUPT
VECTOR TABLE
Note: The user-assigned priority levels are from
0, as the lowest priority, to level 7, as the
highest priority.
Note 1: The natural order priority scheme has 0
as the highest priority and 53 as the
lowest priority.
2: The natural order priority number is the
same as the INT number.
INT
Number Vector
Number Interrupt Source
Highest Natural Order Priority
0 8 INT0 – External Interrupt 0
1 9 IC1 – Input Capture 1
2 10 OC1 – Output Compare 1
3 11 T1 – Timer1
4 12 IC2 – Input Capture 2
5 13 OC2 – Output Compare 2
6 14 T2 – Timer2
7 15 T3 – Timer3
8 16 SPI1
9 17 U1RX – UART1 Receiver
10 18 U1TX – UART1 Transmitter
11 19 ADC – ADC Convert Done
12 20 NVM – NVM Write Complete
13 21 SI2C – I2C™ Slave Interrupt
14 22 MI2C – I2C Master Interrupt
15 23 Input Change Interrupt
16 24 INT1 – External Interrupt 1
17 25 IC7 – Input Capture 7
18 26 IC8 – Input Capture 8
19 27 Reserved
20 28 Reserved
21 29 Reserved
22 30 Reserved
23 31 INT2 - External Interrupt 2
24 32 Reserved
25 33 Reserved
26 34 Reserved
27 35 Reserved
28 36 Reserved
29 37 Reserved
30 38 Reserved
31 39 Reserved
32 40 Reserved
33 41 Reserved
34 42 Reserved
35 43 Reserved
36 44 INT3 – External Interrupt 3
37 45 Reserved
38 46 Reserved
39 47 PWM – PWM Period Match
40 48 QEI – QEI Interrupt
41 49 Reserved
42 50 Reserved
43 51 FLTA – PWM Fault A
44 52 Reserved
45-53 53-61 Reserved
Lowest Natural Order Priority
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 39
dsPIC30F2010
5.2 Reset Sequence
A Reset is not a true exception, because the interrupt
controller is not involved in the Reset process. The pro-
cessor initializes its registers in response to a Reset,
which forces the PC to zero. The processor then begins
program execution at location 0x000000. A GOTO
instruction is stored in the first program memory loca-
tion, immediately followed by the address target for the
GOTO instruction. The processor executes the GOTO to
the specified address and then begins operation at the
specified target (start) address.
5.2.1 RESET SOURCES
In addition to External Reset and Power-on Reset
(POR), there are 6 sources of error conditions which
‘trap’ to the Reset vector.
Watchdog Time-out:
The watchdog has timed out, indicating that the
processor is no longer executing the correct flow
of code.
Uninitialized W Register Trap:
An attempt to use an uninitialized W register as
an Address Pointer will cause a Reset.
Illegal Instruction Trap:
Attempted execution of any unused opcodes will
result in an illegal instruction trap. Note that a
fetch of an illegal instruction does not result in an
illegal instruction trap if that instruction is flushed
prior to execution due to a flow change.
Brown-out Reset (BOR):
A momentary dip in the power supply to the
device has been detected, which may result in
malfunction.
Trap Lockout:
Occurrence of multiple trap conditions
simultaneously will cause a Reset.
5.3 Traps
Traps can be considered as non-maskable interrupts
indicating a software or hardware error, which adhere
to a predefined priority as shown in Figure 5-1. They
are intended to provide the user a means to correct
erroneous operation during debug and when operating
within the application.
Note that many of these trap conditions can only be
detected when they occur. Consequently, the question-
able instruction is allowed to complete prior to trap
exception processing. If the user chooses to recover
from the error, the result of the erroneous action that
caused the trap may have to be corrected.
There are 8 fixed priority levels for traps: Level 8
through Level 15, which means that the IPL3 is always
set during processing of a trap.
If the user is not currently executing a trap, and he sets
the IPL<3:0> bits to a value of ‘0111’ (Level 7), then all
interrupts are disabled, but traps can still be processed.
5.3.1 TRAP SOURCES
The following traps are provided with increasing prior-
ity. However, since all traps can be nested, priority has
little effect.
Math Error Trap:
The math error trap executes under the following four
circumstances:
1. Should an attempt be made to divide by zero,
the divide operation will be aborted on a cycle
boundary and the trap taken.
2. If enabled, a math error trap will be taken when
an arithmetic operation on either accumulator A
or B causes an overflow from bit 31 and the
accumulator guard bits are not utilized.
3. If enabled, a math error trap will be taken when
an arithmetic operation on either accumulator A
or B causes a catastrophic overflow from bit 39
and all saturation is disabled.
4. If the shift amount specified in a shift instruction
is greater than the maximum allowed shift
amount, a trap will occur.
Note: If the user does not intend to take correc-
tive action in the event of a trap error con-
dition, these vectors must be loaded with
the address of a default handler that sim-
ply contains the RESET instruction. If, on
the other hand, one of the vectors contain-
ing an invalid address is called, an
address error trap is generated.
eserv m eserv ectnr Imam n Vectnr merm ectnr Reserved Vectnr eserv ectnr Imam n Vectnr
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 40 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Address Error Trap:
This trap is initiated when any of the following
circumstances occurs:
1. A misaligned data word access is attempted.
2. A data fetch from an unimplemented data
memory location is attempted.
3. A data access of an unimplemented program
memory location is attempted.
4. An instruction fetch from vector space is
attempted.
5. Execution of a “BRA #literal” instruction or a
GOTO #literal” instruction, where literal
is an unimplemented program memory address.
6. Executing instructions after modifying the PC to
point to unimplemented program memory
addresses. The PC may be modified by loading
a value into the stack and executing a RETURN
instruction.
Stack Error Trap:
This trap is initiated under the following conditions:
1. The Stack Pointer is loaded with a value which
is greater than the (user programmable) limit
value written into the SPLIM register (stack
overflow).
2. The Stack Pointer is loaded with a value which
is less than 0x0800 (simple stack underflow).
Oscillator Fail Trap:
This trap is initiated if the external oscillator fails and
operation becomes reliant on an internal RC backup.
5.3.2 HARD AND SOFT TRAPS
It is possible that multiple traps can become active
within the same cycle (e.g., a misaligned word stack
write to an overflowed address). In such a case, the
fixed priority shown in Figure 5-1 is implemented,
which may require the user to check if other traps are
pending, in order to completely correct the fault.
‘Soft’ traps include exceptions of priority level 8 through
level 11, inclusive. The arithmetic error trap (level 11)
falls into this category of traps.
‘Hard’ traps include exceptions of priority level 12
through level 15, inclusive. The address error (level
12), stack error (level 13) and oscillator error (level 14)
traps fall into this category.
Each hard trap that occurs must be acknowledged
before code execution of any type may continue. If a
lower priority hard trap occurs while a higher priority
trap is pending, acknowledged, or is being processed,
a hard trap conflict will occur.
The device is automatically Reset in a hard trap conflict
condition. The TRAPR status bit (RCON<15>) is set
when the Reset occurs, so that the condition may be
detected in software.
FIGURE 5-1: TRAP VECTORS
Note: In the MAC class of instructions, wherein
the data space is split into X and Y data
space, unimplemented X space includes
all of Y space, and unimplemented Y
space includes all of X space.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 41
dsPIC30F2010
5.4 Interrupt Sequence
All interrupt event flags are sampled in the beginning of
each instruction cycle by the IFSx registers. A pending
interrupt request (IRQ) is indicated by the flag bit being
equal to a ‘1’ in an IFSx register. The IRQ will cause an
interrupt to occur if the corresponding bit in the interrupt
enable (IECx) register is set. For the remainder of the
instruction cycle, the priorities of all pending interrupt
requests are evaluated.
If there is a pending IRQ with a priority level greater
than the current processor priority level in the IPL bits,
the processor will be interrupted.
The processor then stacks the current program counter
and the low byte of the processor STATUS register
(SRL), as shown in Figure 5-2. The low byte of the
status register contains the processor priority level at
the time, prior to the beginning of the interrupt cycle.
The processor then loads the priority level for this
interrupt into the STATUS register. This action will
disable all lower priority interrupts until the completion
of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR).
FIGURE 5-2: INTERRUPT STACK
FRAME
The RETFIE (Return from Interrupt) instruction will
unstack the program counter and status registers to
return the processor to its state prior to the interrupt
sequence.
5.5 Alternate Vector Table
In Program Memory, the Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) is
followed by the Alternate Interrupt Vector Table (AIVT),
as shown in Figure 5-1. Access to the Alternate Vector
Table is provided by the ALTIVT bit in the INTCON2
register. If the ALTIVT bit is set, all interrupt and excep-
tion processes will use the alternate vectors instead of
the default vectors. The alternate vectors are organized
in the same manner as the default vectors. The AIVT
supports emulation and debugging efforts by providing
a means to switch between an application and a sup-
port environment, without requiring the interrupt vec-
tors to be reprogrammed. This feature also enables
switching between applications for evaluation of
different software algorithms at run time.
If the AIVT is not required, the program memory allo-
cated to the AIVT may be used for other purposes.
AIVT is not a protected section and may be freely
programmed by the user.
5.6 Fast Context Saving
A context saving option is available using shadow reg-
isters. Shadow registers are provided for the DC, N,
OV, Z and C bits in SR, and the registers W0 through
W3. The shadows are only one level deep. The shadow
registers are accessible using the PUSH.S and POP.S
instructions only.
When the processor vectors to an interrupt, the
PUSH.S instruction can be used to store the current
value of the aforementioned registers into their
respective shadow registers.
If an ISR of a certain priority uses the PUSH.S and
POP.S instructions for fast context saving, then a
higher priority ISR should not include the same instruc-
tions. Users must save the key registers in software
during a lower priority interrupt, if the higher priority ISR
uses fast context saving.
5.7 External Interrupt Requests
The interrupt controller supports five external interrupt
request signals, INT0-INT4. These inputs are edge
sensitive; they require a low-to-high or a high-to-low
transition to generate an interrupt request. The
INTCON2 register has three bits, INT0EP-INT2EP, that
select the polarity of the edge detection circuitry.
5.8 Wake-up from Sleep and Idle
The interrupt controller may be used to wake up the
processor from either Sleep or Idle modes, if Sleep or
Idle mode is active when the interrupt is generated.
If an enabled interrupt request of sufficient priority is
received by the interrupt controller, then the standard
interrupt request is presented to the processor. At the
same time, the processor will wake-up from Sleep or
Idle and begin execution of the Interrupt Service
Routine needed to process the interrupt request.
Note 1: The user can always lower the priority
level by writing a new value into SR. The
Interrupt Service Routine must clear the
interrupt flag bits in the IFSx register
before lowering the processor interrupt
priority, in order to avoid recursive
interrupts.
2: The IPL3 bit (CORCON<3>) is always
clear when interrupts are being pro-
cessed. It is set only during execution of
traps.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 42 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 5-2: INTERRUPT CONTROLLER REGISTER MAP
SFR
Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
INTCON1 0080 NSTDIS OVATE OVBTE COVTE MATHERR ADDRERR STKERR OSCFAIL 0000 0000 0000 0000
INTCON2 0082 ALTIVT DISI — — INT2EP INT1EP INT0EP 0000 0000 0000 0000
IFS0 0084 CNIF MI2CIF SI2CIF NVMIF ADIF U1TXIF U1RXIF SPI1IF T3IF T2IF OC2IF IC2IF T1IF OC1IF IC1IF INT0IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
IFS1 0086 — — — — — —INT2IF— — IC8IF IC7IF INT1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
IFS2 0088 — — — —FLTAIF—QEIIFPWMIF 0000 0000 0000 0000
IEC0 008C CNIE MI2CIE SI2CIE NVMIE ADIE U1TXIE U1RXIE SPI1IE T3IE T2IE OC2IE IC2IE T1IE OC1IE IC1IE INT0IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
IEC1 008E — — — — — — —INT2IE— — IC8IE IC7IE INT1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
IEC2 0090 — — —FLTAIE QEIIE PWMIE 0000 0000 0000 0000
IPC0 0094 T1IP<2:0> — OC1IP<2:0> IC1IP<2:0> INT0IP<2:0> 0100 0100 0100 0100
IPC1 0096 T31P<2:0> — T2IP<2:0> OC2IP<2:0> IC2IP<2:0> 0100 0100 0100 0100
IPC2 0098 ADIP<2:0> — U1TXIP<2:0> U1RXIP<2:0> SPI1IP<2:0> 0100 0100 0100 0100
IPC3 009A CNIP<2:0> — MI2CIP<2:0> — SI2CIP<2:0> NVMIP<2:0> 0100 0100 0100 0100
IPC4 009C —IC8IP<2:0>— IC7IP<2:0> INT1IP<2:0> 0100 0100 0100 0100
IPC5 009E INT2IP<2:0> 0100 0000 0000 0000
IPC6 00A0 — — — — — — 0000 0000 0000 0000
IPC7 00A2 — — — — — — 0000 0000 0000 0000
IPC8 00A4 — — — — — — 0000 0000 0000 0000
IPC9 00A6 PWMIP<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
IPC10 00A8 FLTAIP<2:0> — — QEIIP<2:0> 0100 0000 0000 0100
IPC11 00AA — — — — — — 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 43
dsPIC30F2010
6.0 FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
The dsPIC30F family of devices contains internal
program Flash memory for executing user code. There
are two methods by which the user can program this
memory:
1. In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP™)
programming capability
2. Run-Time Self-Programming (RTSP)
6.1 In-Circuit Serial Programming
(ICSP)
dsPIC30F devices can be serially programmed while in
the end application circuit. This is simply done with two
lines for Programming Clock and Programming Data
(which are named PGC and PGD respectively), and
three other lines for Power (VDD), Ground (VSS) and
Master Clear (MCLR). This allows customers to manu-
facture boards with unprogrammed devices, and then
program the digital signal controller just before shipping
the product. This also allows the most recent firmware
or a custom firmware to be programmed.
6.2 Run-Time Self-Programming
(RTSP)
RTSP is accomplished using TBLRD (table read) and
TBLWT (table write) instructions.
With RTSP, the user may erase program memory, 32
instructions (96 bytes) at a time and can write program
memory data, 32 instructions (96 bytes) at a time.
6.3 Table Instruction Operation Summary
The TBLRDL and the TBLWTL instructions are used to
read or write to bits<15:0> of program memory.
TBLRDL and TBLWTL can access program memory in
Word or Byte mode.
The TBLRDH and TBLWTH instructions are used to read
or write to bits<23:16> of program memory. TBLRDH
and TBLWTH can access program memory in Word or
Byte mode.
A 24-bit program memory address is formed using
bits<7:0> of the TBLPAG register and the EA from a W
register specified in the table instruction, as shown in
Figure 6-1.
FIGURE 6-1: ADDRESSING FOR TABLE AND NVM REGISTERS
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual”
(DS70046). For more information on the
device instruction set and programming,
refer to the “16-bit MCU and DSC Pro-
grammer’s Reference Manual”
(DS70157).
0Program Counter
24 bits
NVMADRU Reg
8 bits 16 bits
Program
Using
TBLPAG Reg
8 bits
Working Reg EA
16 bits
Using
Byte
24-bit EA
1/0
0
1/0
Select
Table
Instruction
NVMADR
Addressing
Counter
Using
NVMADR Reg EA
User/Configuration
Space Select
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 44 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
6.4 RTSP Operation
The dsPIC30F Flash program memory is organized
into rows and panels. Each row consists of 32 instruc-
tions, or 96 bytes. Each panel consists of 128 rows, or
4K x 24 instructions. RTSP allows the user to erase one
row (32 instructions) at a time and to program 32
instructions at one time. RTSP may be used to program
multiple program memory panels, but the table pointer
must be changed at each panel boundary.
Each panel of program memory contains write latches
that hold 32 instructions of programming data. Prior to
the actual programming operation, the write data must
be loaded into the panel write latches. The data to be
programmed into the panel is loaded in sequential
order into the write latches; instruction 0, instruction 1,
etc. The instruction words loaded must always be from
a 32 address boundary.
The basic sequence for RTSP programming is to set up
a table pointer, then do a series of TBLWT instructions
to load the write latches. Programming is performed by
setting the special bits in the NVMCON register. 32
TBLWTL and four TBLWTH instructions are required to
load the 32 instructions. If multiple panel programming
is required, the table pointer needs to be changed and
the next set of multiple write latches written.
All of the table write operations are single word writes
(2 instruction cycles), because only the table latches
are written. A programming cycle is required for
programming each row.
The Flash program memory is readable, writable and
erasable during normal operation over the entire VDD
range.
6.5 Control Registers
The four SFRs used to read and write the program
Flash memory are:
•NVMCON
• NVMADR
• NVMADRU
• NVMKEY
6.5.1 NVMCON REGISTER
The NVMCON register controls which blocks are to be
erased, which memory type is to be programmed, and
the start of the programming cycle.
6.5.2 NVMADR REGISTER
The NVMADR register is used to hold the lower two
bytes of the effective address. The NVMADR register
captures the EA<15:0> of the last table instruction that
has been executed and selects the row to write.
6.5.3 NVMADRU REGISTER
The NVMADRU register is used to hold the upper byte
of the effective address. The NVMADRU register cap-
tures the EA<23:16> of the last table instruction that
has been executed.
6.5.4 NVMKEY REGISTER
NVMKEY is a write-only register that is used for write
protection. To start a programming or an erase
sequence, the user must consecutively write 0x55 and
0xAA to the NVMKEY register. Refer to Section 6.6
“Programming Operations” for further details.
Note: The user can also directly write to the
NVMADR and NVMADRU registers to
specify a program memory address for
erasing or programming.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 45
dsPIC30F2010
6.6 Programming Operations
A complete programming sequence is necessary for
programming or erasing the internal Flash in RTSP
mode. A programming operation is nominally 2 ms in
duration and the processor stalls (waits) until the oper-
ation is finished. Setting the WR bit (NVMCON<15>)
starts the operation, and the WR bit is automatically
cleared when the operation is finished.
6.6.1 PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM FOR
PROGRAM FLASH
The user can erase and program one row of program
Flash memory at a time. The general process is:
1. Read one row of program Flash (32 instruction
words) and store into data RAM as a data
“image”.
2. Update the data image with the desired new
data.
3. Erase program Flash row.
a) Set up NVMCON register for multi-word,
program Flash, erase and set WREN bit.
b) Write address of row to be erased into
NVMADRU/NVMDR.
c) Write 0x55 to NVMKEY.
d) Write 0xAA to NVMKEY.
e) Set the WR bit. This will begin erase cycle.
f) CPU will stall for the duration of the erase
cycle.
g) The WR bit is cleared when erase cycle
ends.
4. Write 32 instruction words of data from data
RAM “image” into the program Flash write
latches.
5. Program 32 instruction words into program
Flash.
a) Set up NVMCON register for multi-word,
program Flash, program and set WREN bit.
b) Write 0x55 to NVMKEY.
c) Write 0xAA to NVMKEY.
d) Set the WR bit. This will begin program
cycle.
e) CPU will stall for duration of the program
cycle.
f) The WR bit is cleared by the hardware
when program cycle ends.
6. Repeat steps 1 through 5 as needed to program
desired amount of program Flash memory.
6.6.2 ERASING A ROW OF PROGRAM
MEMORY
Example 6-1 shows a code sequence that can be used
to erase a row (32 instructions) of program memory.
EXAMPLE 6-1: ERASING A ROW OF PROGRAM MEMORY
; Setup NVMCON for erase operation, multi word write
; program memory selected, and writes enabled
MOV #0x4041,W0 ;
MOV W0,NVMCON ; Init NVMCON SFR
; Init pointer to row to be ERASED
MOV #tblpage(PROG_ADDR),W0 ;
MOV W0,NVMADRU ; Initialize PM Page Boundary SFR
MOV #tbloffset(PROG_ADDR),W0 ; Initialize in-page EA[15:0] pointer
MOV W0, NVMADR ; Initialize NVMADR SFR
DISI #5 ; Block all interrupts with priority <7
; for next 5 instructions
MOV #0x55,W0
MOV W0,NVMKEY ; Write the 0x55 key
MOV #0xAA,W1 ;
MOV W1,NVMKEY ; Write the 0xAA key
BSET NVMCON,#WR ; Start the erase sequence
NOP ; Insert two NOPs after the erase
NOP ; command is asserted
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 46 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
6.6.3 LOADING WRITE LATCHES
Example 6-2 shows a sequence of instructions that
can be used to load the 96 bytes of write latches. 32
TBLWTL and 32 TBLWTH instructions are needed to
load the write latches selected by the table pointer.
EXAMPLE 6-2: LOADING WRITE LATCHES
6.6.4 INITIATING THE PROGRAMMING
SEQUENCE
For protection, the write initiate sequence for NVMKEY
must be used to allow any erase or program operation
to proceed. After the programming command has been
executed, the user must wait for the programming time
until programming is complete. The two instructions
following the start of the programming sequence
should be NOPs.
EXAMPLE 6-3: INITIATING A PROGRAMMING SEQUENCE
; Set up a pointer to the first program memory location to be written
; program memory selected, and writes enabled
MOV #0x0000,W0 ;
MOV W0,TBLPAG ; Initialize PM Page Boundary SFR
MOV #0x6000,W0 ; An example program memory address
; Perform the TBLWT instructions to write the latches
; 0th_program_word
MOV #LOW_WORD_0,W2 ;
MOV #HIGH_BYTE_0,W3 ;
TBLWTL W2,[W0] ; Write PM low word into program latch
TBLWTH W3,[W0++] ; Write PM high byte into program latch
; 1st_program_word
MOV #LOW_WORD_1,W2 ;
MOV #HIGH_BYTE_1,W3 ;
TBLWTL W2,[W0] ; Write PM low word into program latch
TBLWTH W3,[W0++] ; Write PM high byte into program latch
; 2nd_program_word
MOV #LOW_WORD_2,W2 ;
MOV #HIGH_BYTE_2,W3 ;
TBLWTL W2, [W0] ; Write PM low word into program latch
TBLWTH W3, [W0++] ; Write PM high byte into program latch
; 31st_program_word
MOV #LOW_WORD_31,W2 ;
MOV #HIGH_BYTE_31,W3 ;
TBLWTL W2, [W0] ; Write PM low word into program latch
TBLWTH W3, [W0++] ; Write PM high byte into program latch
Note: In Example 6-2, the contents of the upper byte of W3 has no effect.
DISI #5 ; Block all interrupts with priority <7
; for next 5 instructions
MOV #0x55,W0
MOV W0,NVMKEY ; Write the 0x55 key
MOV #0xAA,W1 ;
MOV W1,NVMKEY ; Write the 0xAA key
BSET NVMCON,#WR ; Start the erase sequence
NOP ; Insert two NOPs after the erase
NOP ; command is asserted
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© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 47
dsPIC30F2010
TABLE 6-1: NVM REGISTER MAP
File Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 All RESETS
NVMCON 0760 WR WREN WRERR TWRI —PROGOP<6:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
NVMADR 0762 NVMADR<15:0> uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
NVMADRU 0764 — NVMADR<23:16> 0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
NVMKEY 0766 —KEY<7:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: u = uninitialized bit; — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 48 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 49
dsPIC30F2010
7.0 DATA EEPROM MEMORY
The Data EEPROM Memory is readable and writable
during normal operation over the entire VDD range. The
data EEPROM memory is directly mapped in the
program memory address space.
The four SFRs used to read and write the program
Flash memory are used to access data EEPROM
memory as well. As described in Section 6.0 “Flash
Program Memory”, these registers are:
•NVMCON
• NVMADR
• NVMADRU
• NVMKEY
The EEPROM data memory allows read and write of
single words and 16-word blocks. When interfacing to
data memory, NVMADR, in conjunction with the
NVMADRU register, is used to address the EEPROM
location being accessed. TBLRDL and TBLWTL
instructions are used to read and write data EEPROM.
The dsPIC30F devices have up to 1 Kbyte of data
EEPROM, with an address range from 0x7FFC00 to
0x7FFFFE.
A word write operation should be preceded by an erase
of the corresponding memory location(s). The write
typically requires 2 ms to complete, but the write time
will vary with voltage and temperature.
A program or erase operation on the data EEPROM
does not stop the instruction flow. The user is respon-
sible for waiting for the appropriate duration of time
before initiating another data EEPROM write/erase
operation. Attempting to read the data EEPROM while
a programming or erase operation is in progress results
in unspecified data.
Control bit WR initiates write operations, similar to pro-
gram Flash writes. This bit cannot be cleared, only set,
in software. This bit is cleared in hardware at the com-
pletion of the write operation. The inability to clear the
WR bit in software prevents the accidental or
premature termination of a write operation.
The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation.
On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The WRERR bit is
set when a write operation is interrupted by a MCLR
Reset, or a WDT Time-out Reset, during normal oper-
ation. In these situations, following Reset, the user can
check the WRERR bit and rewrite the location. The
address register NVMADR remains unchanged.
7.1 Reading the Data EEPROM
A TBLRD instruction reads a word at the current pro-
gram word address. This example uses W0 as a
pointer to data EEPROM. The result is placed in
register W4, as shown in Example 7-1.
EXAMPLE 7-1: DATA EEPROM READ
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046). For more information on the
device instruction set and programming,
refer to the “16-bit MCU and DSC Pro-
grammer’s Reference Manual”
(DS70157).
Note: Interrupt flag bit NVMIF in the IFS0 regis-
ter is set when write is complete. It must
be cleared in software.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 50 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
7.2 Erasing Data EEPROM
7.2.1 ERASING A BLOCK OF DATA
EEPROM
In order to erase a block of data EEPROM, the
NVMADRU and NVMADR registers must initially
point to the block of memory to be erased. Configure
NVMCON for erasing a block of data EEPROM, and
set the WR and WREN bits in NVMCON register.
Setting the WR bit initiates the erase, as shown in
Example 7-2.
EXAMPLE 7-2: DATA EEPROM BLOCK ERASE
7.2.2 ERASING A WORD OF DATA
EEPROM
The NVMADRU and NVMADR registers must point
to the block. Select erase a block of data Flash,
and set the WR and WREN bits in NVMCON
register. Setting the WR bit initiates the erase, as
shown in Example 7-3.
EXAMPLE 7-3: DATA EEPROM WORD ERASE
; Select data EEPROM block, ERASE, WREN bits
MOV #4045,W0
MOV W0,NVMCON ; Initialize NVMCON SFR
; Start erase cycle by setting WR after writing key sequence
DISI #5 ; Block all interrupts with priority <7
; for next 5 instructions
MOV #0x55,W0 ;
MOV W0,NVMKEY ; Write the 0x55 key
MOV #0xAA,W1 ;
MOV W1,NVMKEY ; Write the 0xAA key
BSET NVMCON,#WR ; Initiate erase sequence
NOP
NOP
; Erase cycle will complete in 2mS. CPU is not stalled for the Data Erase Cycle
; User can poll WR bit, use NVMIF or Timer IRQ to determine erasure complete
; Select data EEPROM word, ERASE, WREN bits
MOV #4044,W0
MOV W0,NVMCON
; Start erase cycle by setting WR after writing key sequence
DISI #5 ; Block all interrupts with priority <7
; for next 5 instructions
MOV #0x55,W0 ;
MOV W0,NVMKEY ; Write the 0x55 key
MOV #0xAA,W1 ;
MOV W1,NVMKEY ; Write the 0xAA key
BSET NVMCON,#WR ; Initiate erase sequence
NOP
NOP
; Erase cycle will complete in 2mS. CPU is not stalled for the Data Erase Cycle
; User can poll WR bit, use NVMIF or Timer IRQ to determine erasure complete
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 51
dsPIC30F2010
7.3 Writing to the Data EEPROM
To write an EEPROM data location, the following
sequence must be followed:
1. Erase data EEPROM word.
a) Select word, data EEPROM, erase and set
WREN bit in NVMCON register.
b) Write address of word to be erased into
NVMADRU/NVMADR.
c) Enable NVM interrupt (optional).
d) Write 0x55 to NVMKEY.
e) Write 0xAA to NVMKEY.
f) Set the WR bit. This will begin erase cycle.
g) Either poll NVMIF bit or wait for NVMIF
interrupt.
h) The WR bit is cleared when the erase cycle
ends.
2. Write data word into data EEPROM write
latches.
3. Program 1 data word into data EEPROM.
a) Select word, data EEPROM, program and
set WREN bit in NVMCON register.
b) Enable NVM write done interrupt (optional).
c) Write 0x55 to NVMKEY.
d) Write 0xAA to NVMKEY.
e) Set The WR bit. This will begin program
cycle.
f) Either poll NVMIF bit or wait for NVM
interrupt.
g) The WR bit is cleared when the write cycle
ends.
The write will not initiate if the above sequence is not
exactly followed (write 0x55 to NVMKEY, write 0xAA to
NVMCON, then set WR bit) for each word. It is strongly
recommended that interrupts be disabled during this
code segment.
Additionally, the WREN bit in NVMCON must be set to
enable writes. This mechanism prevents accidental
writes to data EEPROM, due to unexpected code exe-
cution. The WREN bit should be kept clear at all times,
except when updating the EEPROM. The WREN bit is
not cleared by hardware.
After a write sequence has been initiated, clearing the
WREN bit will not affect the current write cycle. The WR
bit will be inhibited from being set unless the WREN bit
is set. The WREN bit must be set on a previous
instruction. Both WR and WREN cannot be set with the
same instruction.
At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit is
cleared in hardware and the Nonvolatile Memory Write
Complete Interrupt Flag bit (NVMIF) is set. The user
may either enable this interrupt, or poll this bit. NVMIF
must be cleared by software.
7.3.1 WRITING A WORD OF DATA
EEPROM
Once the user has erased the word to be programmed,
then a table write instruction is used to write one write
latch, as shown in Example 7-4.
EXAMPLE 7-4: DATA EEPROM WORD WRITE
; Point to data memory
MOV #LOW_ADDR_WORD,W0 ; Init pointer
MOV #HIGH_ADDR_WORD,W1
MOV W1,TBLPAG
MOV #LOW(WORD),W2 ; Get data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0] ; Write data
; The NVMADR captures last table access address
; Select data EEPROM for 1 word op
MOV #0x4004,W0
MOV W0,NVMCON
; Operate key to allow write operation
DISI #5 ; Block all interrupts with priority <7
; for next 5 instructions
MOV #0x55,W0
MOV W0,NVMKEY ; Write the 0x55 key
MOV #0xAA,W1
MOV W1,NVMKEY ; Write the 0xAA key
BSET NVMCON,#WR ; Initiate program sequence
NOP
NOP
; Write cycle will complete in 2mS. CPU is not stalled for the Data Write Cycle
; User can poll WR bit, use NVMIF or Timer IRQ to determine write complete
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 52 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
7.3.2 WRITING A BLOCK OF DATA
EEPROM
To write a block of data EEPROM, write to all sixteen
latches first, then set the NVMCON register and
program the block.
EXAMPLE 7-5: DATA EEPROM BLOCK WRITE
7.4 Write Verify
Depending on the application, good programming
practice may dictate that the value written to the mem-
ory should be verified against the original value. This
should be used in applications where excessive writes
can stress bits near the specification limit.
7.5 Protection Against Spurious Write
There are conditions when the device may not want to
write to the data EEPROM memory. To protect against
spurious EEPROM writes, various mechanisms have
been built-in. On power-up, the WREN bit is cleared;
also, the Power-up Timer prevents EEPROM write.
The write initiate sequence and the WREN bit together
help prevent an accidental write during brown-out,
power glitch or software malfunction.
MOV #LOW_ADDR_WORD,W0 ; Init pointer
MOV #HIGH_ADDR_WORD,W1
MOV W1,TBLPAG
MOV #data1,W2 ; Get 1st data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data2,W2 ; Get 2nd data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data3,W2 ; Get 3rd data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data4,W2 ; Get 4th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data5,W2 ; Get 5th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data6,W2 ; Get 6th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data7,W2 ; Get 7th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data8,W2 ; Get 8th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data9,W2 ; Get 9th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data10,W2 ; Get 10th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data11,W2 ; Get 11th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data12,W2 ; Get 12th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data13,W2 ; Get 13th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data14,W2 ; Get 14th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data15,W2 ; Get 15th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data
MOV #data16,W2 ; Get 16th data
TBLWTL W2,[ W0]++ ; write data. The NVMADR captures last table access address.
MOV #0x400A,W0 ; Select data EEPROM for multi word op
MOV W0,NVMCON ; Operate Key to allow program operation
DISI #5 ; Block all interrupts with priority <7 for next 5 instructions
MOV #0x55,W0
MOV W0,NVMKEY ; Write the 0x55 key
MOV #0xAA,W1
MOV W1,NVMKEY ; Write the 0xAA key
BSET NVMCON,#WR ; Start write cycle
NOP
NOP
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 53
dsPIC30F2010
8.0 I/O PORTS
All of the device pins (except VDD, VSS, MCLR and
OSC1/CLKI) are shared between the peripherals and
the parallel I/O ports.
All I/O input ports feature Schmitt Trigger inputs for
improved noise immunity.
8.1 Parallel I/O (PIO) Ports
When a peripheral is enabled and the peripheral is
actively driving an associated pin, the use of the pin as
a general purpose output pin is disabled. The I/O pin
may be read, but the output driver for the parallel port
bit will be disabled. If a peripheral is enabled, but the
peripheral is not actively driving a pin, that pin may be
driven by a port.
All port pins have three registers directly associated
with the operation of the port pin. The data direction
register (TRISx) determines whether the pin is an input
or an output. If the data direction bit is a ‘1’, then the pin
is an input. All port pins are defined as inputs after a
Reset. Reads from the latch (LATx), read the latch.
Writes to the latch, write the latch (LATx). Reads from
the port (PORTx), read the port pins, and writes to the
port pins, write the latch (LATx).
Any bit and its associated data and control registers
that are not valid for a particular device will be disabled.
That means the corresponding LATx and TRISx
registers and the port pin will read as zeros.
When a pin is shared with another peripheral or func-
tion that is defined as an input only, it is nevertheless
regarded as a dedicated port because there is no
other competing source of outputs. An example is the
INT4 pin.
A parallel I/O (PIO) port that shares a pin with a periph-
eral is, in general, subservient to the peripheral. The
peripheral’s output buffer data and control signals are
provided to a pair of multiplexers. The multiplexers
select whether the peripheral or the associated port
has ownership of the output data and control signals of
the I/O pad cell. Figure 8-1 shows how ports are shared
with other peripherals, and the associated I/O cell (pad)
to which they are connected. Table 8-1 shows the
formats of the registers for the shared ports, PORTB
through PORTF.
FIGURE 8-1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A SHARED PORT STRUCTURE
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046).
Q
D
CK
WR LAT +
TRIS Latch
I/O Pad
WR Port
Data Bus
QD
CK
Data Latch
Read LAT
Read Port
Read TRIS
1
0
1
0
WR TRIS
Peripheral Output Data
Peripheral Input Data
I/O Cell
Peripheral Module
Peripheral Output Enable
PIO Module
Output Multiplexers
Input Data
Peripheral Module Enable
Output Enable
Output Data
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 54 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
8.2 Configuring Analog Port Pins
The use of the ADPCFG and TRIS registers control the
operation of the A/D port pins. The port pins that are
desired as analog inputs must have their correspond-
ing TRIS bit set (input). If the TRIS bit is cleared (out-
put), the digital output level (VOH or VOL) will be
converted.
When reading the PORT register, all pins configured as
analog input channel will read as cleared (a low level).
Pins configured as digital inputs will not convert an ana-
log input. Analog levels on any pin that is defined as a
digital input (including the ANx pins), may cause the
input buffer to consume current that exceeds the
device specifications.
8.2.1 I/O PORT WRITE/READ TIMING
One instruction cycle is required between a port
direction change or port write operation and a read
operation of the same port. Typically this instruction
would be a NOP.
EXAMPLE 8-1: PORT WRITE/READ
EXAMPLE
8.3 Input Change Notification Module
The Input Change Notification module provides the
dsPIC30F devices the ability to generate interrupt
requests to the processor in response to a change-of-
state on selected input pins. This module is capable of
detecting input change-of-states even in Sleep mode,
when the clocks are disabled. There are up to 22 exter-
nal signals (CN0 through CN21) that may be selected
(enabled) for generating an interrupt request on a
change-of-state.
MOV 0xFF00, W0 ; Configure PORTB<15:8>
; as inputs
MOV W0, TRISBB ; and PORTB<7:0> as outputs
NOP ; Delay 1 cycle
btss PORTB, #13 ; Next Instruction
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 55
dsPIC30F2010
TABLE 8-1: dsPIC30F2010 PORT REGISTER MAP
TABLE 8-2: INPUT CHANGE NOTIFICATION REGISTER MAP (BITS 15-0)
SFR Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
TRISB 02C6 — — — TRISB5 TRISB4 TRISB3 TRISB2 TRISB1 TRISB0 0000 0000 0011 1111
PORTB 02C8 — — — RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 0000 0000 0000 0000
LATB 02CA — — — LATB5 LATB4 LATB3 LATB2 LATB1 LATB0 0000 0000 0000 0000
TRISC 02CC TRISC15 TRISC14 TRISC13 — — — — — — 1110 0000 0000 0000
PORTC 02CE RC15 RC14 RC13 — — — — — — 0000 0000 0000 0000
LATC 02D0 LATC15 LATC14 LATC13 — — — — — — 0000 0000 0000 0000
TRISD 02D2 — — — — — TRISD1 TRISD0 0000 0000 0000 0111
PORTD 02D4 — — — — — RD1 RD0 0000 0000 0000 0000
LATD 02D6 — — — — — LATD1 LATD0 0000 0000 0000 0000
TRISE 02D8 — — — TRISE8 TRISE5 TRISE4 TRISE3 TRISE2 TRISE1 TRISE0 0000 0001 0011 1111
PORTE 02DA — — — RE8 — — RE5 RE4 RE3 RE2 RE1 RE0 0000 0000 0000 0000
LATE 02DC — — — LATE8 LATE5 LATE4 LATE3 LATE2 LATE1 LATE0 0000 0000 0000 0000
TRISF 02DE — — — — — TRISF3 TRISF2 0000 0000 0000 1100
PORTF 02E0 — — — — — RF3 RF2 0000 0000 0000 0000
LATF 02E2 — — — — — LATF3 LATF2 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
SFR Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
CNEN1 00C0 CN15IE CN14IE CN13IE CN12IE CN11IE CN10IE CN9IE CN8IE CN7IE CN6IE CN5IE CN4IE CN3IE CN2IE CN1IE CN0IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
CNEN2 00C2 — — — — CN21IE CN20IE CN19IE CN18IE CN17IE CN16IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
CNPU1 00C4 CN15PUE CN14PUE CN13PUE CN12PUE CN11PUE CN10PUE CN9PUE CN8PUE CN7PUE CN6PUE CN5PUE CN4PUE CN3PUE CN2PUE CN1PUE CN0PUE
0000 0000 0000 0000
CNPU2 00C6 — — — — CN21PUE CN20PUE CN19PUE CN18PUE CN17PUE CN16PUE
0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 56 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 57
dsPIC30F2010
9.0 TIMER1 MODULE
This section describes the 16-bit general purpose
Timer1 module and associated operational modes.
Figure 9-1 depicts the simplified block diagram of the
16-bit Timer1 Module.
The following sections provide a detailed description of
the operational modes of the timers, including setup
and control registers along with associated block
diagrams.
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer which can serve as
the time counter for the real-time clock, or operate as a
free running interval timer/counter. The 16-bit timer has
the following modes:
16-bit Timer
16-bit Synchronous Counter
16-bit Asynchronous Counter
Further, the following operational characteristics are
supported:
Timer gate operation
Selectable prescaler settings
Timer operation during CPU Idle and Sleep
modes
Interrupt on 16-bit period register match or falling
edge of external gate signal
These operating modes are determined by setting the
appropriate bit(s) in the 16-bit SFR, T1CON. Figure 9-1
presents a block diagram of the 16-bit timer module.
16-bit Timer Mode: In the 16-bit Timer mode, the timer
increments on every instruction cycle up to a match
value, preloaded into the period register PR1, then
resets to ‘0’ and continues to count.
When the CPU goes into the Idle mode, the timer will
stop incrementing unless the TSIDL (T1CON<13>)
bit = 0. If TSIDL = 1, the timer module logic will resume
the incrementing sequence upon termination of the
CPU Idle mode.
16-bit Synchronous Counter Mode: In the 16-bit
Synchronous Counter mode, the timer increments on
the rising edge of the applied external clock signal,
which is synchronized with the internal phase clocks.
The timer counts up to a match value preloaded in PR1,
then resets to ‘0’ and continues.
When the CPU goes into the Idle mode, the timer will
stop incrementing, unless the respective TSIDL bit = 0.
If TSIDL = 1, the timer module logic will resume the
incrementing sequence upon termination of the CPU
Idle mode.
16-bit Asynchronous Counter Mode: In the 16-bit
Asynchronous Counter mode, the timer increments on
every rising edge of the applied external clock signal.
The timer counts up to a match value preloaded in PR1,
then resets to ‘0’ and continues.
When the timer is configured for the Asynchronous
mode of operation and the CPU goes into the Idle
mode, the timer will stop incrementing if TSIDL = 1.
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046).
Note: Timer1 is a ‘Type Atimer. Refer to the
specifications for the Type A timer in
Section 22.0 “Electrical Characteristics”
for details.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 58 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 9-1: 16-BIT TIMER1 MODULE BLOCK DIAGRAM (TYPE A TIMER)
9.1 Timer Gate Operation
The 16-bit timer can be placed in the Gated Time Accu-
mulation mode. This mode allows the internal TCY to
increment the respective timer when the gate input sig-
nal (T1CK pin) is asserted high. Control bit TGATE
(T1CON<6>) must be set to enable this mode. The
timer must be enabled (TON = 1) and the timer clock
source set to internal (TCS = 0).
When the CPU goes into the Idle mode, the timer will
stop incrementing, unless TSIDL = 0. If TSIDL = 1, the
timer will resume the incrementing sequence upon
termination of the CPU Idle mode.
9.2 Timer Prescaler
The input clock (FOSC/4 or external clock) to the 16-bit
Timer, has a prescale option of 1:1, 1:8, 1:64, and
1:256 selected by control bits TCKPS<1:0>
(T1CON<5:4>). The prescaler counter is cleared when
any of the following occurs:
A write to the TMR1 register
Clearing of the TON bit (T1CON<15>)
Device Reset such as POR and BOR
However, if the timer is disabled (TON = 0), then the
timer prescaler cannot be reset since the prescaler
clock is halted.
TMR1 is not cleared when T1CON is written. It is
cleared by writing to the TMR1 register.
9.3 Timer Operation During Sleep
Mode
During CPU Sleep mode, the timer will operate if:
The timer module is enabled (TON = 1) and
The timer clock source is selected as external
(TCS = 1) and
The TSYNC bit (T1CON<2>) is asserted to a logic
0’, which defines the external clock source as
asynchronous
When all three conditions are true, the timer will
continue to count up to the period register and be Reset
to 0x0000.
When a match between the timer and the period regis-
ter occurs, an interrupt can be generated, if the
respective timer interrupt enable bit is asserted.
TON
Sync
SOSCI
SOSCO/
PR1
T1IF
Equal Comparator x 16
TMR1
Reset
LPOSCEN
Event Flag
1
0
TSYNC
Q
QD
CK
TGATE
TCKPS<1:0>
Prescaler
1, 8, 64, 256
2
TGATE
TCY
1
0
T1CK
TCS
1 X
0 1
TGATE
0 0
(3)
Gate
Sync
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 59
dsPIC30F2010
9.4 Timer Interrupt
The 16-bit timer has the ability to generate an interrupt
on period match. When the timer count matches the
period register, the T1IF bit is asserted and an interrupt
will be generated, if enabled. The T1IF bit must be
cleared in software. The timer interrupt flag T1IF is
located in the IFS0 control register in the Interrupt
Controller.
When the Gated Time Accumulation mode is enabled,
an interrupt will also be generated on the falling edge of
the gate signal (at the end of the accumulation cycle).
Enabling an interrupt is accomplished via the respec-
tive timer interrupt enable bit, T1IE. The timer interrupt
enable bit is located in the IEC0 control register in the
Interrupt Controller.
9.5 Real-Time Clock
Timer1, when operating in Real-Time Clock (RTC)
mode, provides time-of-day and event time stamping
capabilities. Key operational features of the RTC are:
Operation from 32 kHz LP oscillator
8-bit prescaler
Low power
Real-Time Clock Interrupts
These Operating modes are determined by
setting the appropriate bit(s) in the T1CON
Control register
FIGURE 9-2: RECOMMENDED
COMPONENTS FOR
TIMER1 LP OSCILLATOR
RTC
9.5.1 RTC OSCILLATOR OPERATION
When the TON = 1, TCS = 1 and TGATE = 0, the timer
increments on the rising edge of the 32 kHz LP oscilla-
tor output signal, up to the value specified in the period
register, and is then Reset to ‘0’.
The TSYNC bit must be asserted to a logic ‘0
(Asynchronous mode) for correct operation.
Enabling LPOSCEN (OSCCON<1>) will disable the
normal Timer and Counter modes, and enable a timer
carry-out wake-up event.
When the CPU enters Sleep mode, the RTC will con-
tinue to operate, provided the 32 kHz external crystal
oscillator is active and the control bits have not been
changed. The TSIDL bit should be cleared to ‘0’ in
order for RTC to continue operation in Idle mode.
9.5.2 RTC INTERRUPTS
When an interrupt event occurs, the respective inter-
rupt flag, T1IF, is asserted and an interrupt will be gen-
erated, if enabled. The T1IF bit must be cleared in
software. The respective Timer interrupt flag, T1IF, is
located in the IFS0 status register in the Interrupt
Controller.
Enabling an interrupt is accomplished via the respec-
tive timer interrupt enable bit, T1IE. The Timer interrupt
enable bit is located in the IEC0 control register in the
Interrupt Controller.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 60 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 9-1: TIMER1 REGISTER MAP
SFR Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
TMR1 0100 Timer 1 Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
PR1 0102 Period Register 1 1111 1111 1111 1111
T1CON 0104 TON —TSIDL — — TGATE TCKPS1 TCKPS0 TSYNC TCS 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: u = uninitialized bit; — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 61
dsPIC30F2010
10.0 TIMER2/3 MODULE
This section describes the 32-bit general purpose
Timer module (Timer2/3) and associated operational
modes. Figure 10-1 depicts the simplified block dia-
gram of the 32-bit Timer2/3 module. Figure 10-2 and
Figure 10-3 show Timer2/3 configured as two
independent 16-bit timers; Timer2 and Timer3,
respectively.
The Timer2/3 module is a 32-bit timer, which can be
configured as two 16-bit timers, with selectable operat-
ing modes. These timers are utilized by other
peripheral modules such as:
Input Capture
Output Compare/Simple PWM
The following sections provide a detailed description,
including setup and control registers, along with asso-
ciated block diagrams for the operational modes of the
timers.
The 32-bit timer has the following modes:
Two independent 16-bit timers (Timer2 and
Timer3) with all 16-bit operating modes (except
Asynchronous Counter mode)
Single 32-bit Timer operation
Single 32-bit Synchronous Counter
Further, the following operational characteristics are
supported:
ADC Event Trigger
Timer Gate Operation
Selectable Prescaler Settings
Timer Operation during Idle and Sleep modes
Interrupt on a 32-bit Period Register Match
These operating modes are determined by setting the
appropriate bit(s) in the 16-bit T2CON and T3CON
SFRs.
For 32-bit timer/counter operation, Timer2 is the least
significant word and Timer3 is the most significant word
of the 32-bit timer.
16-bit Mode: In the 16-bit mode, Timer2 and Timer3
can be configured as two independent 16-bit timers.
Each timer can be set up in either 16-bit Timer mode or
16-bit Synchronous Counter mode. See Section 9.0
“Timer1 Module” for details on these two operating
modes.
The only functional difference between Timer2 and
Timer3 is that Timer2 provides synchronization of the
clock prescaler output. This is useful for high frequency
external clock inputs.
32-bit Timer Mode: In the 32-bit Timer mode, the timer
increments on every instruction cycle up to a match
value, preloaded into the combined 32-bit period regis-
ter PR3/PR2, then resets to ‘0’ and continues to count.
For synchronous 32-bit reads of the Timer2/Timer3
pair, reading the least significant word (TMR2 register)
will cause the most significant word (msw) to be read
and latched into a 16-bit holding register, termed
TMR3HLD.
For synchronous 32-bit writes, the holding register
(TMR3HLD) must first be written to. When followed by
a write to the TMR2 register, the contents of TMR3HLD
will be transferred and latched into the MSB of the
32-bit timer (TMR3).
32-bit Synchronous Counter Mode: In the 32-bit
Synchronous Counter mode, the timer increments on
the rising edge of the applied external clock signal,
which is synchronized with the internal phase clocks.
The timer counts up to a match value preloaded in the
combined 32-bit period register PR3/PR2, then resets
to ‘0’ and continues.
When the timer is configured for the Synchronous
Counter mode of operation and the CPU goes into the
Idle mode, the timer will stop incrementing, unless the
TSIDL (T2CON<13>) bit = ‘0’. If TSIDL = ‘1’, the timer
module logic will resume the incrementing sequence
upon termination of the CPU Idle mode.
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046).
Note: Timer2 is a ‘Type B’ timer and Timer3 is a
‘Type C’ timer. Please refer to the
appropriate timer type in Section 22.0
“Electrical Characteristics” for details.
Note: For 32-bit timer operation, T3CON control
bits are ignored. Only T2CON control bits
are used for setup and control. Timer 2
clock and gate inputs are utilized for the
32-bit timer module, but an interrupt is
generated with the Timer3 interrupt flag
(T3IF), and the interrupt is enabled with
the Timer3 interrupt enable bit (T3IE).
U
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 62 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 10-1: 32-BIT TIMER2/3 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR3 TMR2
T3IF
Equal Comparator x 32
PR3 PR2
Reset
LSB
MSB
Event Flag
Note: Timer Configuration bit T32, T2CON(<3>) must be set to 1 for a 32-bit timer/counter operation. All control
bits are respective to the T2CON register.
Data Bus<15:0>
TMR3HLD
Read TMR2
Write TMR2 16
16
16
Q
QD
CK
TGATE(T2CON<6>)
(T2CON<6>)
TGATE
0
1
TON
TCKPS<1:0>
Prescaler
1, 8, 64, 256
2
TCY
TCS
1 X
0 1
TGATE
0 0
Gate
T2CK
Sync
ADC Event Trigger
Sync
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 63
dsPIC30F2010
FIGURE 10-2: 16-BIT TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM (TYPE B TIMER)
FIGURE 10-3: 16-BIT TIMER3 BLOCK DIAGRAM (TYPE C TIMER)
TON
Sync
PR2
T2IF
Equal Comparator x 16
TMR2
Reset
Event Flag
Q
QD
CK
TGATE
TCKPS<1:0>
Prescaler
1, 8, 64, 256
2
TGATE
TCY
1
0
TCS
1 X
0 1
TGATE
0 0
Gate
T2CK
Sync
TON
PR3
T3IF
Equal Comparator x 16
TMR3
Reset
Event Flag
Q
QD
CK
TGATE
TCKPS<1:0>
Prescaler
1, 8, 64, 256
2
TGATE
TCY
1
0
TCS
1 X
0 1
TGATE
0 0
ADC Event Trigger
Sync
See
NOTE
Note: The dsPIC30F2010 does not have an external pin input to TIMER3. The following modes should not be used:
1. TCS = 1
2. TCS = 0 and TGATE = 1 (gated time accumulation)
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 64 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
10.1 Timer Gate Operation
The 32-bit timer can be placed in the Gated Time Accu-
mulation mode. This mode allows the internal TCY to
increment the respective timer when the gate input sig-
nal (T2CK pin) is asserted high. Control bit TGATE
(T2CON<6>) must be set to enable this mode. When in
this mode, Timer2 is the originating clock source. The
TGATE setting is ignored for Timer3. The timer must be
enabled (TON = 1) and the timer clock source set to
internal (TCS = 0).
The falling edge of the external signal terminates the
count operation, but does not reset the timer. The user
must reset the timer in order to start counting from zero.
10.2 ADC Event Trigger
When a match occurs between the 32-bit timer (TMR3/
TMR2) and the 32-bit combined period register (PR3/
PR2), a special ADC trigger event signal is generated
by Timer3.
10.3 Timer Prescaler
The input clock (FOSC/4 or external clock) to the timer
has a prescale option of 1:1, 1:8, 1:64, and 1:256
selected by control bits TCKPS<1:0> (T2CON<5:4>
and T3CON<5:4>). For the 32-bit timer operation, the
originating clock source is Timer2. The prescaler oper-
ation for Timer3 is not applicable in this mode. The
prescaler counter is cleared when any of the following
occurs:
A write to the TMR2/TMR3 register
Clearing either of the TON (T2CON<15> or
T3CON<15>) bits to ‘0
Device Reset such as POR and BOR
However, if the timer is disabled (TON = 0), then the
Timer 2 prescaler cannot be reset, since the prescaler
clock is halted.
TMR2/TMR3 is not cleared when T2CON/T3CON is
written.
10.4 Timer Operation During Sleep
Mode
During CPU Sleep mode, the timer will not operate,
because the internal clocks are disabled.
10.5 Timer Interrupt
The 32-bit timer module can generate an interrupt on
period match, or on the falling edge of the external gate
signal. When the 32-bit timer count matches the
respective 32-bit period register, or the falling edge of
the external “gate” signal is detected, the T3IF bit
(IFS0<7>) is asserted and an interrupt will be gener-
ated if enabled. In this mode, the T3IF interrupt flag is
used as the source of the interrupt. The T3IF bit must
be cleared in software.
Enabling an interrupt is accomplished via the
respective timer interrupt enable bit, T3IE (IEC0<7>).
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 65
dsPIC30F2010
TABLE 10-1: TIMER2/3 REGISTER MAP
SFR Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
TMR2 0106 Timer2 Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
TMR3HLD 0108 Timer3 Holding Register (For 32-bit timer operations only) uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
TMR3 010A Timer3 Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
PR2 010C Period Register 2 1111 1111 1111 1111
PR3 010E Period Register 3 1111 1111 1111 1111
T2CON 0110 TON —TSIDL — — TGATE TCKPS1 TCKPS0 T32 —TCS 0000 0000 0000 0000
T3CON 0112 TON —TSIDL — — TGATE TCKPS1 TCKPS0 —TCS 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: u = uninitialized bit; — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 66 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 67
dsPIC30F2010
11.0 INPUT CAPTURE MODULE
This section describes the Input Capture module and
associated operational modes. The features provided
by this module are useful in applications requiring Fre-
quency (Period) and Pulse measurement. Figure 11-1
depicts a block diagram of the Input Capture module.
Input capture is useful for such modes as:
Frequency/Period/Pulse Measurements
Additional sources of External Interrupts
The key operational features of the Input Capture
module are:
Simple Capture Event mode
Timer2 and Timer3 mode selection
Interrupt on input capture event
These operating modes are determined by setting the
appropriate bits in the ICxCON register (where
x = 1,2,...,N). The dsPIC DSC devices contain up to
eight capture channels, (i.e., the maximum value of
N is 8).
FIGURE 11-1: INPUT CAPTURE MODE BLOCK DIAGRAM
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046).
Note: The dsPIC30F2010 device has four
capture inputs – IC1, IC2, IC7 and IC8.
The naming of these four capture chan-
nels is intentional and preserves software
compatibility with other dsPIC DSC
devices.
ICxBUF
Prescaler
ICx
ICM<2:0>
Mode Select
3
Note: Where ‘x’ is shown, reference is made to the registers or bits associated to the respective input capture channels 1 through N.
10
Set Flag
Pin
ICxIF
ICTMR
T2_CNT T3_CNT
Edge
Detection
Logic
Clock
Synchronizer
1, 4, 16
From General Purpose Timer Module
16 16
FIFO
R/W
Logic
ICI<1:0>
ICBNE, ICOV
ICxCON Interrupt
Logic
Set Flag
ICxIF
Data Bus
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 68 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
11.1 Simple Capture Event Mode
The simple capture events in the dsPIC30F product
family are:
Capture every falling edge
Capture every rising edge
Capture every 4th rising edge
Capture every 16th rising edge
Capture every rising and falling edge
These simple Input Capture modes are configured by
setting the appropriate bits ICM<2:0> (ICxCON<2:0>).
11.1.1 CAPTURE PRESCALER
There are four input capture prescaler settings, speci-
fied by bits ICM<2:0> (ICxCON<2:0>). Whenever the
capture channel is turned off, the prescaler counter will
be cleared. In addition, any Reset will clear the
prescaler counter.
11.1.2 CAPTURE BUFFER OPERATION
Each capture channel has an associated FIFO buffer,
which is four 16-bit words deep. There are two status
flags, which provide status on the FIFO buffer:
ICBNE – Input Capture Buffer Not Empty
ICOV – Input Capture Overflow
The ICBFNE will be set on the first input capture event
and remain set until all capture events have been read
from the FIFO. As each word is read from the FIFO, the
remaining words are advanced by one position within
the buffer.
In the event that the FIFO is full with four capture
events and a fifth capture event occurs prior to a read
of the FIFO, an overflow condition will occur and the
ICOV bit will be set to a logic ‘1’. The fifth capture event
is lost and is not stored in the FIFO. No additional
events will be captured until all four events have been
read from the buffer.
If a FIFO read is performed after the last read and no
new capture event has been received, the read will
yield indeterminate results.
11.1.3 TIMER2 AND TIMER3 SELECTION
MODE
The input capture module consists of up to eight input
capture channels. Each channel can select between
one of two timers for the time base, Timer2 or Timer3.
Selection of the timer resource is accomplished
through SFR bit ICTMR (ICxCON<7>). Timer3 is the
default timer resource available for the input capture
module.
11.1.4 HALL SENSOR MODE
When the input capture module is set for capture on
every edge, rising and falling, ICM<2:0> = 001, the fol-
lowing operations are performed by the input capture
logic:
The input capture interrupt flag is set on every
edge, rising and falling.
The interrupt on Capture mode setting bits,
ICI<1:0>, is ignored, since every capture
generates an interrupt.
A capture overflow condition is not generated in
this mode.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 69
dsPIC30F2010
11.2 Input Capture Operation During
Sleep and Idle Modes
An input capture event will generate a device wake-up
or interrupt, if enabled, if the device is in CPU Idle or
Sleep mode.
Independent of the timer being enabled, the input
capture module will wake-up from the CPU Sleep or
Idle mode when a capture event occurs, if
ICM<2:0> = 111 and the interrupt enable bit is
asserted. The same wake-up can generate an inter-
rupt, if the conditions for processing the interrupt have
been satisfied. The wake-up feature is useful as a
method of adding extra external pin interrupts.
11.2.1 INPUT CAPTURE IN CPU SLEEP
MODE
CPU Sleep mode allows input capture module opera-
tion with reduced functionality. In the CPU Sleep
mode, the ICI<1:0> bits are not applicable, and the
input capture module can only function as an external
interrupt source.
The capture module must be configured for interrupt
only on the rising edge (ICM<2:0> = 111), in order for
the input capture module to be used while the device
is in Sleep mode. The prescale settings of 4:1 or 16:1
are not applicable in this mode.
11.2.2 INPUT CAPTURE IN CPU IDLE
MODE
CPU Idle mode allows input capture module operation
with full functionality. In the CPU Idle mode, the interrupt
mode selected by the ICI<1:0> bits are applicable, as
well as the 4:1 and 16:1 capture prescale settings,
which are defined by control bits ICM<2:0>. This mode
requires the selected timer to be enabled. Moreover, the
ICSIDL bit must be asserted to a logic ‘0’.
If the input capture module is defined as
ICM<2:0> = 111 in CPU Idle mode, the input capture
pin will serve only as an external interrupt pin.
11.3 Input Capture Interrupts
The input capture channels have the ability to generate
an interrupt, based upon the selected number of cap-
ture events. The selection number is set by control bits
ICI<1:0> (ICxCON<6:5>).
Each channel provides an interrupt flag (ICxIF) bit. The
respective capture channel interrupt flag is located in
the corresponding IFSx status register.
Enabling an interrupt is accomplished via the respec-
tive capture channel interrupt enable (ICxIE) bit. The
capture interrupt enable bit is located in the
corresponding IEC Control register.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 70 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 11-1: INPUT CAPTURE REGISTER MAP
SFR Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
IC1BUF 0140 Input 1 Capture Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
IC1CON 0142 —ICSIDL— — ICTMR ICI<1:0> ICOV ICBNE ICM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
IC2BUF 0144 Input 2 Capture Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
IC2CON 0146 —ICSIDL— — ICTMR ICI<1:0> ICOV ICBNE ICM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
IC3BUF 0148 Input 3 Capture Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
IC3CON 014A —ICSIDL— — ICTMR ICI<1:0> ICOV ICBNE ICM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
IC4BUF 014C Input 4 Capture Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
IC4CON 014E —ICSIDL— — ICTMR ICI<1:0> ICOV ICBNE ICM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
IC5BUF 0150 Input 5 Capture Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
IC5CON 0152 —ICSIDL— — ICTMR ICI<1:0> ICOV ICBNE ICM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
IC6BUF 0154 Input 6 Capture Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
IC6CON 0156 —ICSIDL— — ICTMR ICI<1:0> ICOV ICBNE ICM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
IC7BUF 0158 Input 7 Capture Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
IC7CON 015A —ICSIDL— — ICTMR ICI<1:0> ICOV ICBNE ICM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
IC8BUF 015C Input 8 Capture Register uuuu uuuu uuuu uuuu
IC8CON 015E —ICSIDL— — ICTMR ICI<1:0> ICOV ICBNE ICM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: u = uninitialized bit; — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 71
dsPIC30F2010
12.0 OUTPUT COMPARE MODULE
This section describes the Output Compare module
and associated operational modes. The features pro-
vided by this module are useful in applications requiring
operational modes such as:
Generation of Variable Width Output Pulses
Power Factor Correction
Figure 12-1 depicts a block diagram of the Output
Compare module.
The key operational features of the Output Compare
module include:
Timer2 and Timer3 Selection mode
Simple Output Compare Match mode
Dual Output Compare Match mode
Simple PWM mode
Output Compare during Sleep and Idle modes
Interrupt on Output Compare/PWM Event
These operating modes are determined by setting
the appropriate bits in the 16-bit OCxCON SFR (where
x = 1 and 2).
OCxRS and OCxR in the figure represent the Dual
Compare registers. In the Dual Compare mode, the
OCxR register is used for the first compare and OCxRS
is used for the second compare.
FIGURE 12-1: OUTPUT COMPARE MODE BLOCK DIAGRAM
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046).
OCxR
Comparator
Output
Logic QS
R
OCM<2:0>
Output Enable
OCx
Set Flag bit
OCxIF
OCxRS
Mode Select
3
Note: Where ‘x’ is shown, reference is made to the registers associated with the respective Output Compare
channels 1and 2.
OCFA
OCTSEL 01
T2P2_MATCH
TMR2<15:0> TMR3<15:0> T3P3_MATCH
From General Purpose
(for x = 1 and 2)
01
Timer Module
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 72 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
12.1 Timer2 and Timer3 Selection Mode
Each output compare channel can select between one
of two 16-bit timers: Timer2 or Timer3.
The selection of the timers is controlled by the OCTSEL
bit (OCxCON<3>). Timer2 is the default timer resource
for the Output Compare module.
12.2 Simple Output Compare Match
Mode
When control bits OCM<2:0> (OCxCON<2:0>) = 001,
010 or 011, the selected output compare channel is
configured for one of three simple Output Compare
Match modes:
Compare forces I/O pin low
Compare forces I/O pin high
Compare toggles I/O pin
The OCxR register is used in these modes. The OCxR
register is loaded with a value and is compared to the
selected incrementing timer count. When a compare
occurs, one of these Compare Match modes occurs. If
the counter resets to zero before reaching the value in
OCxR, the state of the OCx pin remains unchanged.
12.3 Dual Output Compare Match Mode
When control bits OCM<2:0> (OCxCON<2:0>) = 100
or 101, the selected output compare channel is config-
ured for one of two Dual Output Compare modes,
which are:
Single Output Pulse mode
Continuous Output Pulse mode
12.3.1 SINGLE PULSE MODE
For the user to configure the module for the generation
of a single output pulse, the following steps are
required (assuming timer is off):
Determine instruction cycle time TCY.
Calculate desired pulse width value based on TCY.
Calculate time to start pulse from timer start value
of 0x0000.
Write pulse width start and stop times into OCxR
and OCxRS compare registers (x denotes
channel 1, 2).
Set timer period register to value equal to, or
greater than, value in OCxRS compare register.
Set OCM<2:0> = 100.
Enable timer, TON (TxCON<15>) = 1.
To initiate another single pulse, issue another write to
set OCM<2:0> = 100.
12.3.2 CONTINUOUS PULSE MODE
For the user to configure the module for the generation
of a continuous stream of output pulses, the following
steps are required:
Determine instruction cycle time TCY.
Calculate desired pulse value based on TCY.
Calculate timer to start pulse width from timer start
value of 0x0000.
Write pulse width start and stop times into OCxR
and OCxRS (x denotes channel 1, 2) compare
registers, respectively.
Set timer period register to value equal to, or
greater than, value in OCxRS compare register.
Set OCM<2:0> = 101.
Enable timer, TON (TxCON<15>) = 1.
12.4 Simple PWM Mode
When control bits OCM<2:0> (OCxCON<2:0>) = 110
or 111, the selected output compare channel is config-
ured for the PWM mode of operation. When configured
for the PWM mode of operation, OCxR is the main latch
(read-only) and OCxRS is the secondary latch. This
enables glitchless PWM transitions.
The user must perform the following steps in order to
configure the output compare module for PWM
operation:
1. Set the PWM period by writing to the appropriate
period register.
2. Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the OCxRS
register.
3. Configure the output compare module for PWM
operation.
4. Set the TMRx prescale value and enable the
Timer, TON (TxCON<15>) = 1.
12.4.1 INPUT PIN FAULT PROTECTION
FOR PWM
When control bits OCM<2:0> (OCxCON<2:0>) = 111,
the selected output compare channel is again config-
ured for the PWM mode of operation, with the
additional feature of input fault protection. While in this
mode, if a logic ‘0’ is detected on the OCFA/B pin, the
respective PWM output pin is placed in the high-imped-
ance input state. The OCFLT bit (OCxCON<4>)
indicates whether a Fault condition has occurred. This
state will be maintained until both of the following
events have occurred:
The external Fault condition has been removed.
The PWM mode has been re-enabled by writing
to the appropriate control bits.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 73
dsPIC30F2010
12.4.2 PWM PERIOD
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PRx reg-
ister. The PWM period can be calculated using
Equation 12-1.
EQUATION 12-1: PWM PERIOD
PWM frequency is defined as 1/[PWM period].
When the selected TMRx is equal to its respective
period register, PRx, the following four events occur on
the next increment cycle:
TMRx is cleared.
The OCx pin is set.
- Exception 1: If PWM duty cycle is 0x0000,
the OCx pin will remain low.
- Exception 2: If duty cycle is greater than PRx,
the pin will remain high.
The PWM duty cycle is latched from OCxRS into
OCxR.
The corresponding timer interrupt flag is set.
See Figure 12-1 for key PWM period comparisons.
Timer3 is referred to in the figure for clarity.
12.5 Output Compare Operation During
CPU Sleep Mode
When the CPU enters the Sleep mode, all internal
clocks are stopped. Therefore, when the CPU enters
the Sleep state, the output compare channel will drive
the pin to the active state that was observed prior to
entering the CPU Sleep state.
For example, if the pin was high when the CPU
entered the Sleep state, the pin will remain high. Like-
wise, if the pin was low when the CPU entered the
Sleep state, the pin will remain low. In either case, the
output compare module will resume operation when
the device wakes up.
12.6 Output Compare Operation During
CPU Idle Mode
When the CPU enters the Idle mode, the output
compare module can operate with full functionality.
The output compare channel will operate during the
CPU Idle mode if the OCSIDL bit (OCxCON<13>) is at
logic ‘0’ and the selected time base (Timer2 or Timer3)
is enabled and the TSIDL bit of the selected timer is
set to logic ‘0’.
FIGURE 12-1: PWM OUTPUT TIMING
12.7 Output Compare Interrupts
The output compare channels have the ability to gener-
ate an interrupt on a compare match, for whichever
Match mode has been selected.
For all modes except the PWM mode, when a compare
event occurs, the respective interrupt flag (OCxIF) is
asserted and an interrupt will be generated, if enabled.
The OCxIF bit is located in the corresponding IFS
status register, and must be cleared in software. The
interrupt is enabled via the respective compare inter-
rupt enable (OCxIE) bit, located in the corresponding
IEC Control register.
For the PWM mode, when an event occurs, the respec-
tive timer interrupt flag (T2IF or T3IF) is asserted and
an interrupt will be generated, if enabled. The IF bit is
located in the IFS0 status register, and must be cleared
in software. The interrupt is enabled via the respective
timer interrupt enable bit (T2IE or T3IE), located in the
IEC0 Control register. The output compare interrupt
flag is never set during the PWM mode of operation.
Period
Duty Cycle
TMR3 = Duty Cycle (OCxR) TMR3 = Duty Cycle (OCxR)
TMR3 = PR3
T3IF = 1
(Interrupt Flag)
OCxR = OCxRS
TMR3 = PR3
(Interrupt Flag)
OCxR = OCxRS
T3IF = 1
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 74 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 12-1: OUTPUT COMPARE REGISTER MAP
SFR Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
OC1RS 0180 Output Compare 1 Master Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
OC1R 0182 Output Compare 1 Slave Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
OC1CON 0184 OCFRZ OCSIDL — — — OCFLT1 OCTSEL1 OCM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
OC2RS 0186 Output Compare 2 Master Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
OC2R 0188 Output Compare 2 Slave Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
OC2CON 018A OCFRZ OCSIDL — — — OCFLT2 OCTSEL2 OCM<2:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 75
dsPIC30F2010
13.0 QUADRATURE ENCODER
INTERFACE (QEI) MODULE
This section describes the Quadrature Encoder Inter-
face (QEI) module and associated operational modes.
The QEI module provides the interface to incremental
encoders for obtaining motor positioning data. Incre-
mental encoders are very useful in motor control
applications.
The Quadrature Encoder Interface (QEI) is a key fea-
ture requirement for several motor control applications,
such as Switched Reluctance (SR) and AC Induction
Motor (ACIM). The operational features of the QEI are,
but not limited to:
Three input channels for two phase signals and
index pulse
16-bit up/down position counter
Count direction status
Position Measurement (x2 and x4) mode
Programmable digital noise filters on inputs
Alternate 16-bit Timer/Counter mode
Quadrature Encoder Interface interrupts
These operating modes are determined by setting the
appropriate bits QEIM<2:0> (QEICON<10:8>).
Figure 13-1 depicts the Quadrature Encoder Interface
block diagram.
FIGURE 13-1: QUADRATURE ENCODER INTERFACE BLOCK DIAGRAM
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046).
16-bit Up/Down Counter
Comparator/
Max Count Register
Quadrature
Programmable
Digital Filter
QEA
Programmable
Digital Filter
INDX
3
Encoder
Programmable
Digital Filter
QEB
Interface Logic
QEIM<2:0>
Mode Select
3
(POSCNT)
(MAXCNT)
QEIIF
Event
Flag
Reset
Equal
2
TCY
1
0
TQCS
TQCKPS<1:0>
2
1, 8, 64, 256
Prescaler
Q
Q
D
CK
TQGATE
QEIM<2:0>
Synchronize
Det
1
0
Sleep Input
0
1
UPDN_SRC
QEICON<11> Zero Detect
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 76 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
13.1 Quadrature Encoder Interface
Logic
A typical incremental (a.k.a. optical) encoder has three
outputs: Phase A, Phase B, and an index pulse. These
signals are useful and often required in position and
speed control of ACIM and SR motors.
The two channels, Phase A (QEA) and Phase B (QEB),
have a unique relationship. If Phase A leads Phase B,
then the direction (of the motor) is deemed positive or
forward. If Phase A lags Phase B, then the direction (of
the motor) is deemed negative or reverse.
A third channel, termed index pulse, occurs once per
revolution and is used as a reference to establish an
absolute position. The index pulse coincides with
Phase A and Phase B, both low.
13.2 16-bit Up/Down Position Counter
Mode
The 16-bit Up/Down Counter counts up or down on
every count pulse, which is generated by the difference
of the Phase A and Phase B input signals. The counter
acts as an integrator, whose count value is proportional
to position. The direction of the count is determined by
the UPDN signal, which is generated by the
Quadrature Encoder Interface Logic.
13.2.1 POSITION COUNTER ERROR
CHECKING
Position count error checking in the QEI is provided for
and indicated by the CNTERR bit (QEICON<15>). The
error checking only applies when the position counter
is configured for Reset on the Index Pulse modes
(QEIM<2:0> = ‘110’ or ‘100’). In these modes, the
contents of the POSCNT register is compared with the
values (0xFFFF or MAXCNT + 1, depending on direc-
tion). If these values are detected, an error condition is
generated by setting the CNTERR bit and a QEI count
error interrupt is generated. The QEI count error
interrupt can be disabled by setting the CEID bit
(DFLTCON<8>). The position counter continues to
count encoder edges after an error has been detected.
The POSCNT register continues to count up/down until
a natural rollover/underflow. No interrupt is generated
for the natural rollover/underflow event. The CNTERR
bit is a read/write bit and reset in software by the user.
13.2.2 POSITION COUNTER RESET
The Position Counter Reset Enable bit, POSRES
(QEI<2>) controls whether the position counter is reset
when the index pulse is detected. This bit is only
applicable when QEIM<2:0> = ‘100’ or ‘110’.
If the POSRES bit is set to ‘1’, then the position counter
is reset when the index pulse is detected. If the
POSRES bit is set to ‘0’, then the position counter is not
reset when the index pulse is detected. The position
counter will continue counting up or down, and will be
reset on the rollover or underflow condition.
When selecting the INDX signal to reset the position
counter (POSCNT), the user has to specify the states
on QEA and QEB input pins. These states have to be
matched in order for a reset to occur. These states are
selected by the IMV<1:0> bit in the DFLTCON <10:9>
register.
The IMV<1:0> (Index Match Value) bit allows the user
to specify the state of the QEA and QEB input pins
during an index pulse when the POSCNT register is to
be reset.
In 4X Quadrature Count Mode:
IMV1 = Required state of phase B input signal for
match on index pulse
IMV0 = Required state of phase A input signal for
match on index pulse
In 2X Quadrature Count Mode:
IMV1 = Selects phase input signal for index state
match (
0
= Phase A,
1
= Phase B)
IMV0 = Required state of the selected phase input
signal for match on index pulse
The interrupt is still generated on the detection of the
index pulse and not on the position counter overflow/
underflow.
13.2.3 COUNT DIRECTION STATUS
As mentioned in the previous section, the QEI logic
generates an UPDN signal, based upon the relation-
ship between Phase A and Phase B. In addition to
the output pin, the state of this internal UPDN signal
is supplied to a SFR bit UPDN (QEICON<11>) as a
read-only bit.
Note: QEI pins are multiplexed with analog
inputs. User must insure that all QEI asso-
ciated pins are set as digital inputs in the
ADPCFG register.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 77
dsPIC30F2010
13.3 Position Measurement Mode
There are two Measurement modes which are sup-
ported and are termed x2 and x4. These modes are
selected by the QEIM<2:0> mode select bits located in
SFR QEICON<10:8>.
When control bits QEIM<2:0> = 100 or 101, the x2
Measurement mode is selected and the QEI logic only
looks at the Phase A input for the position counter
increment rate. Every rising and falling edge of the
Phase A signal causes the position counter to be incre-
mented or decremented. The Phase B signal is still
utilized for the determination of the counter direction,
just as in the x4 mode.
Within the x2 Measurement mode, there are two
variations of how the position counter is reset:
1. Position counter reset by detection of index
pulse, QEIM<2:0> = 100.
2. Position counter reset by match with MAXCNT,
QEIM<2:0> = 101.
When control bits QEIM<2:0> = 110 or 111, the x4
Measurement mode is selected and the QEI logic looks
at both edges of the Phase A and Phase B input sig-
nals. Every edge of both signals causes the position
counter to increment or decrement.
Within the x4 Measurement mode, there are two
variations of how the position counter is reset:
1. Position counter reset by detection of index
pulse, QEIM<2:0> = 110.
2. Position counter reset by match with MAXCNT,
QEIM<2:0> = 111.
The x4 Measurement mode provides for finer resolu-
tion data (more position counts) for determining motor
position.
13.4 Programmable Digital Noise
Filters
The digital noise filter section is responsible for
rejecting noise on the incoming quadrature signals.
Schmitt Trigger inputs and a three-clock cycle delay fil-
ter combine to reject low level noise and large, short
duration noise spikes that typically occur in noise prone
applications, such as a motor system.
The filter ensures that the filtered output signal is not
permitted to change until a stable value has been
registered for three consecutive clock cycles.
For the QEA, QEB and INDX pins, the clock divide fre-
quency for the digital filter is programmed by bits
QECK<2:0> (DFLTCON<6:4>) and are derived from
the base instruction cycle TCY.
To enable the filter output for channels QEA, QEB and
INDX, the QEOUT bit must be ‘1’. The filter network for
all channels is disabled on POR and BOR.
13.5 Alternate 16-bit Timer/Counter
When the QEI module is not configured for the QEI
mode QEIM<2:0> = 001, the module can be configured
as a simple 16-bit timer/counter. The setup and control
of the auxiliary timer is accomplished through the QEI-
CON SFR register. This timer functions identically to
Timer1. The QEA pin is used as the timer clock input.
When configured as a timer, the POSCNT register
serves as the Timer Count Register and the MAXCNT
register serves as the Period Register. When a timer/
period register match occur, the QEI interrupt flag will
be asserted.
The only exception between the general purpose tim-
ers and this timer is the added feature of external Up/
Down input select. When the UPDN pin is asserted
high, the timer will increment up. When the UPDN pin
is asserted low, the timer will be decremented.
The UPDN control/status bit (QEICON<11>) can be
used to select the count direction state of the Timer reg-
ister. When UPDN = 1, the timer will count up. When
UPDN = 0, the timer will count down.
In addition, control bit UPDN_SRC (QEICON<0>)
determines whether the timer count direction state is
based on the logic state, written into the UPDN control/
status bit (QEICON<11>), or the QEB pin state. When
UPDN_SRC = 1, the timer count direction is controlled
from the QEB pin. Likewise, when UPDN_SRC = 0, the
timer count direction is controlled by the UPDN bit.
13.6 QEI Module Operation During CPU
Sleep Mode
13.6.1 QEI OPERATION DURING CPU
SLEEP MODE
The QEI module will be halted during the CPU Sleep
mode.
13.6.2 TIMER OPERATION DURING CPU
SLEEP MODE
During CPU Sleep mode, the timer will not operate,
because the internal clocks are disabled.
Note: Changing the Operational mode (i.e., from
QEI to Timer or vice versa), will not affect
the Timer/Position Count Register
contents.
Note: This Timer does not support the External
Asynchronous Counter mode of operation.
If using an external clock source, the clock
will automatically be synchronized to the
internal instruction cycle.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 78 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
13.7 QEI Module Operation During CPU
Idle Mode
Since the QEI module can function as a quadrature
encoder interface, or as a 16-bit timer, the following
section describes operation of the module in both
modes.
13.7.1 QEI OPERATION DURING CPU IDLE
MODE
When the CPU is placed in the Idle mode, the QEI
module will operate if the QEISIDL bit
(QEICON<13>) = 0. This bit defaults to a logic ‘0
upon executing POR and BOR. For halting the QEI
module during the CPU Idle mode, QEISIDL should be
set to ‘1’.
13.7.2 TIMER OPERATION DURING CPU
IDLE MODE
When the CPU is placed in the Idle mode and the QEI
module is configured in the 16-bit Timer mode, the
16-bit timer will operate if the QEISIDL bit (QEI-
CON<13>) = 0. This bit defaults to a logic ‘0’ upon
executing POR and BOR. For halting the timer module
during the CPU Idle mode, QEISIDL should be set
to ‘1’.
If the QEISIDL bit is cleared, the timer will function
normally, as if the CPU Idle mode had not been
entered.
13.8 Quadrature Encoder Interface
Interrupts
The quadrature encoder interface has the ability to
generate an interrupt on occurrence of the following
events:
Interrupt on 16-bit up/down position counter
rollover/underflow
Detection of qualified index pulse, or if CNTERR
bit is set
Timer period match event (overflow/underflow)
Gate accumulation event
The QEI interrupt flag bit, QEIIF, is asserted upon
occurrence of any of the above events. The QEIIF bit
must be cleared in software. QEIIF is located in the
IFS2 status register.
Enabling an interrupt is accomplished via the respec-
tive enable bit, QEIIE. The QEIIE bit is located in the
IEC2 Control register.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 79
dsPIC30F2010
TABLE 13-1: QEI REGISTER MAP
SFR
Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
QEICON 0122 CNTERR QEISIDL INDX UPDN QEIM2 QEIM1 QEIM0 SWPAB TQGATE TQCKPS1 TQCKPS0 POSRES TQCS UPDN_SRC 0000 0000 0000 0000
DFLTCON 0124 — — — IMV1 IMV0 CEID QEOUT QECK2 QECK1 QECK0 0000 0000 0000 0000
POSCNT 0126 Position Counter<15:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
MAXCNT 0128 Maximun Count<15:0> 1111 1111 1111 1111
Legend: — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 80 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 81
dsPIC30F2010
14.0 MOTOR CONTROL PWM
MODULE
This module simplifies the task of generating multiple,
synchronized Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) outputs.
In particular, the following power and motion control
applications are supported by the PWM module:
Three-Phase AC Induction Motor
Switched Reluctance (SR) Motor
Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
The PWM module has the following features:
Six PWM I/O pins with three duty cycle generators
Up to 16-bit resolution
‘On-the-Fly’ PWM frequency changes
Edge and Center-Aligned Output modes
Single Pulse Generation mode
Interrupt support for asymmetrical updates in
Center-Aligned mode
Output override control for Electrically
Commutative Motor (ECM) operation
‘Special Event’ comparator for scheduling other
peripheral events
•FLTA
pin to optionally drive each of the PWM
output pins to a defined state
This module contains three duty cycle generators,
numbered 1 through 3. The module has six PWM
output pins, numbered PWM1H/PWM1L through
PWM3H/PWM3L. The six I/O pins are grouped into
high/low numbered pairs, denoted by the suffix H or L,
respectively. For complementary loads, the low PWM
pins are always the complement of the corresponding
high I/O pin.
A simplified block diagram of the Motor Control PWM
modules is shown in Figure 14-1.
The PWM module allows several modes of operation
which are beneficial for specific power control
applications.
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046).
.3 \\\\\\ 1\\\\\\\\\\\ \\\\4
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 82 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 14-1: PWM BLOCK DIAGRAM
PDC3
PDC3 Buffer
PWMCON1
PTPER Buffer
PWMCON2
PTPER
PTMR
Comparator
Comparator
Channel 3 Dead-Time
Generator and
PTCON
SEVTCMP
Comparator Special Event Trigger
FLTACON
OVDCON
PWM Enable and Mode SFRs
FLTA Pin Control SFR
PWM Manual
Channel 2 Dead-Time
Generator and
Channel 1 Dead-Time
Generator and
PWM
Generator 2
PWM
Generator 1
PWM Generator 3
SEVTDIR
PTDIR
DTCON1 Dead-Time Control SFR
Special Event
Postscaler
FLTA
PWM1L
PWM1H
PWM2L
PWM2H
PWM3L
PWM3H
16-bit Data Bus
Override Logic
Override Logic
Override Logic
Control SFR
PWM Time Base
Output
Driver
Block
Note: Details of PWM Generator 1 and 2 not shown for clarity.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 83
dsPIC30F2010
14.1 PWM Time Base
The PWM time base is provided by a 15-bit timer with
a prescaler and postscaler. The time base is accessible
via the PTMR SFR. PTMR<15> is a read-only status
bit, PTDIR, that indicates the present count direction of
the PWM time base. If PTDIR is cleared, PTMR is
counting upwards. If PTDIR is set, PTMR is counting
downwards. The PWM time base is configured via the
PTCON SFR. The time base is enabled/disabled by
setting/clearing the PTEN bit in the PTCON SFR.
PTMR is not cleared when the PTEN bit is cleared in
software.
The PTPER SFR sets the counting period for PTMR.
The user must write a 15-bit value to PTPER<14:0>.
When the value in PTMR<14:0> matches the value in
PTPER<14:0>, the time base will either Reset to ‘0’, or
reverse the count direction on the next occurring clock
cycle. The action taken depends on the Operating
mode of the time base.
The PWM time base can be configured for four different
modes of operation:
Free Running mode
Single Shot mode
Continuous Up/Down Count mode
Continuous Up/Down Count mode with interrupts
for double updates
These four modes are selected by the PTMOD<1:0>
bits in the PTCON SFR. The Up/Down Counting modes
support center-aligned PWM generation. The Single
Shot mode allows the PWM module to support pulse
control of certain Electronically Commutative Motors
(ECMs).
The interrupt signals generated by the PWM time base
depend on the mode selection bits (PTMOD<1:0>) and
the postscaler bits (PTOPS<3:0>) in the PTCON SFR.
14.1.1 FREE RUNNING MODE
In the Free Running mode, the PWM time base counts
upwards until the value in the Time Base Period regis-
ter (PTPER) is matched. The PTMR register is reset on
the following input clock edge and the time base will
continue to count upwards as long as the PTEN bit
remains set.
When the PWM time base is in the Free Running mode
(PTMOD<1:0> = 00), an interrupt event is generated
each time a match with the PTPER register occurs and
the PTMR register is Reset to zero. The postscaler
selection bits may be used in this mode of the timer to
reduce the frequency of the interrupt events.
14.1.2 SINGLE-SHOT MODE
In the Single-Shot Counting mode, the PWM time base
begins counting upwards when the PTEN bit is set.
When the value in the PTMR register matches the
PTPER register, the PTMR register will be reset on the
following input clock edge and the PTEN bit will be
cleared by the hardware to halt the time base.
When the PWM time base is in the Single-Shot mode
(PTMOD<1:0> = 01), an interrupt event is generated
when a match with the PTPER register occurs, the
PTMR register is reset to zero on the following input
clock edge, and the PTEN bit is cleared. The postscaler
selection bits have no effect in this mode of the timer.
14.1.3 CONTINUOUS UP/DOWN
COUNTING MODES
In the Continuous Up/Down Counting modes, the PWM
time base counts upwards until the value in the PTPER
register is matched. The timer will begin counting
downwards on the following input clock edge. The
PTDIR bit in the PTCON SFR is read-only and indi-
cates the counting direction The PTDIR bit is set when
the timer counts downwards.
In the Up/Down Counting mode (PTMOD<1:0> = 10),
an interrupt event is generated each time the value of
the PTMR register becomes zero and the PWM time
base begins to count upwards. The postscaler selec-
tion bits may be used in this mode of the timer to reduce
the frequency of the interrupt events.
Note: If the period register is set to 0x0000, the
timer will stop counting, and the interrupt
and the special event trigger will not be
generated, even if the special event value
is also 0x0000. The module will not
update the period register if it is already at
0x0000; therefore, the user must disable
the module in order to update the period
register.
Free Runmng and Smg‘e Shol modes. Up/Down Counlmg modes
dsPIC30F2010
DS70118J-page 84 © 2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
14.1.4 DOUBLE UPDATE MODE
In the Double Update mode (PTMOD<1:0> = 11), an
interrupt event is generated each time the PTMR regis-
ter is equal to zero, as well as each time a period match
occurs. The postscaler selection bits have no effect in
this mode of the timer.
The Double Update mode provides two additional func-
tions to the user. First, the control loop bandwidth is
doubled because the PWM duty cycles can be
updated, twice per period. Second, asymmetrical cen-
ter-aligned PWM waveforms can be generated, which
are useful for minimizing output waveform distortion in
certain motor control applications.
14.1.5 PWM TIME BASE PRESCALER
The input clock to PTMR (FOSC/4), has prescaler
options of 1:1, 1:4, 1:16 or 1:64, selected by control bits
PTCKPS<1:0> in the PTCON SFR. The prescaler
counter is cleared when any of the following occurs:
a write to the PTMR register
a write to the PTCON register
any device Reset
The PTMR register is not cleared when PTCON is
written.
14.1.6 PWM TIME BASE POSTSCALER
The match output of PTMR can optionally be post-
scaled through a 4-bit postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to
1:16 scaling).
The postscaler counter is cleared when any of the
following occurs:
a write to the PTMR register
a write to the PTCON register
any device Reset
The PTMR register is not cleared when PTCON is
written.
14.2 PWM Period
PTPER is a 15-bit register and is used to set the count-
ing period for the PWM time base. PTPER is a double-
buffered register. The PTPER buffer contents are
loaded into the PTPER register at the following
instances:
Free Running and Single Shot modes: When the
PTMR register is reset to zero after a match with
the PTPER register.
Up/Down Counting modes: When the PTMR
register is zero.
The value held in the PTPER buffer is automatically
loaded into the PTPER register when the PWM time
base is disabled (PTEN = 0).
The PWM period can be determined using
Equation 14-1:
EQUATION 14-1: PWM PERIOD
If the PWM time base is configured for one of the Up/
Down Count modes, the PWM period is found using
Equation 14-2.
EQUATION 14-2: PWM PERIOD (UP/DOWN
COUNT MODE)
The maximum resolution (in bits) for a given device
oscillator and PWM frequency can be determined using
Equation 14-3:
EQUATION 14-3: PWM RESOLUTION
Note: Programming a value of 0x0001 in the
period register could generate a continu-
ous interrupt pulse, and hence, must be
avoided.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 85
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14.3 Edge-Aligned PWM
Edge-aligned PWM signals are produced by the mod-
ule when the PWM time base is in the Free Running or
Single Shot mode. For edge-aligned PWM outputs, the
output has a period specified by the value in PTPER
and a duty cycle specified by the appropriate duty cycle
register (see Figure 14-2). The PWM output is driven
active at the beginning of the period (PTMR = 0) and is
driven inactive when the value in the duty cycle register
matches PTMR.
If the value in a particular duty cycle register is zero,
then the output on the corresponding PWM pin will be
inactive for the entire PWM period. In addition, the out-
put on the PWM pin will be active for the entire PWM
period if the value in the duty cycle register is greater
than the value held in the PTPER register.
FIGURE 14-2: EDGE-ALIGNED PWM
14.4 Center-Aligned PWM
Center-aligned PWM signals are produced by the
module when the PWM time base is configured in an
Up/Down Counting mode (see Figure 14-3).
The PWM compare output is driven to the active state
when the value of the duty cycle register matches the
value of PTMR and the PWM time base is counting
downwards (PTDIR = 1). The PWM compare output is
driven to the inactive state when the PWM time base is
counting upwards (PTDIR = 0) and the value in the
PTMR register matches the duty cycle value.
If the value in a particular duty cycle register is zero,
then the output on the corresponding PWM pin will be
inactive for the entire PWM period. In addition, the out-
put on the PWM pin will be active for the entire PWM
period if the value in the duty cycle register is equal to
the value held in the PTPER register.
FIGURE 14-3: CENTER-ALIGNED PWM
14.5 PWM Duty Cycle Comparison
Units
There are four 16-bit Special Function Registers
(PDC1, PDC2, PDC3 and PDC4) used to specify duty
cycle values for the PWM module.
The value in each duty cycle register determines the
amount of time that the PWM output is in the active
state. The duty cycle registers are 16 bits wide. The
LSb of a duty cycle register determines whether the
PWM edge occurs in the beginning. Thus, the PWM
resolution is effectively doubled.
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14.5.1 DUTY CYCLE REGISTER BUFFERS
The four PWM duty cycle registers are double-buffered
to allow glitchless updates of the PWM outputs. For
each duty cycle, there is a duty cycle register that is
accessible by the user and a second duty cycle register
that holds the actual compare value used in the present
PWM period.
For edge-aligned PWM output, a new duty cycle value
will be updated whenever a match with the PTPER reg-
ister occurs and PTMR is reset. The contents of the
duty cycle buffers are automatically loaded into the
duty cycle registers when the PWM time base is dis-
abled (PTEN = 0) and the UDIS bit is cleared in
PWMCON2.
When the PWM time base is in the Up/Down Counting
mode, new duty cycle values are updated when the
value of the PTMR register is zero and the PWM time
base begins to count upwards. The contents of the duty
cycle buffers are automatically loaded into the duty
cycle registers when the PWM time base is disabled
(PTEN = 0).
When the PWM time base is in the Up/Down Counting
mode with double updates, new duty cycle values are
updated when the value of the PTMR register is zero,
and when the value of the PTMR register matches the
value in the PTPER register. The contents of the duty
cycle buffers are automatically loaded into the duty
cycle registers when the PWM time base is disabled
(PTEN = 0).
14.6 Complementary PWM Operation
In the Complementary mode of operation, each pair of
PWM outputs is obtained by a complementary PWM
signal. A dead time may be optionally inserted during
device switching, when both outputs are inactive for a
short period (Refer to Section 14.7 “Dead-Time
Generators”).
In Complementary mode, the duty cycle comparison
units are assigned to the PWM outputs as follows:
PDC1 register controls PWM1H/PWM1L outputs
PDC2 register controls PWM2H/PWM2L outputs
PDC3 register controls PWM3H/PWM3L outputs
The Complementary mode is selected for each PWM
I/O pin pair by clearing the appropriate PMODx bit in the
PWMCON1 SFR. The PWM I/O pins are set to
Complementary mode by default upon a device Reset.
14.7 Dead-Time Generators
Dead-time generation may be provided when any of
the PWM I/O pin pairs are operating in the Comple-
mentary Output mode. The PWM outputs use Push-
Pull drive circuits. Due to the inability of the power out-
put devices to switch instantaneously, some amount of
time must be provided between the turn off event of one
PWM output in a complementary pair and the turn on
event of the other transistor.
14.7.1 DEAD-TIME GENERATORS
Each complementary output pair for the PWM module
has a 6-bit down counter that is used to produce the
dead-time insertion. As shown in Figure 14-4, the
dead-time unit has a rising and falling edge detector
connected to the duty cycle comparison output.
14.7.2 DEAD-TIME RANGES
The amount of dead time provided by the dead-time
unit is selected by specifying the input clock prescaler
value and a 6-bit unsigned value.
Four input clock prescaler selections have been pro-
vided to allow a suitable range of dead times, based on
the device operating frequency. The dead-time clock
prescaler value is selected using the DTAPS<1:0> and
DTBPS<1:0> control bits in the DTCON1 SFR. One of
four clock prescaler options (TCY, 2 TCY, 4 TCY or 8 TCY)
is selected for the dead-time value.
After the prescaler value is selected, the dead time is
adjusted by loading a 6-bit unsigned value into the
DTCON1 SFR.
The dead-time unit prescaler is cleared on the following
events:
On a load of the down timer due to a duty cycle
comparison edge event.
On a write to the DTCON1 register.
On any device Reset.
Note: The user should not modify the DTCON1
values while the PWM module is operat-
ing (PTEN = 1). Unexpected results may
occur.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 87
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FIGURE 14-4: DEAD-TIME TIMING DIAGRAM
14.8 Independent PWM Output
An independent PWM Output mode is required for driv-
ing certain types of loads. A particular PWM output pair
is in the Independent Output mode when the corre-
sponding PMOD bit in the PWMCON1 register is set.
No dead-time control is implemented between adjacent
PWM I/O pins when the module is operating in the
Independent mode and both I/O pins are allowed to be
active simultaneously.
In the Independent mode, each duty cycle generator is
connected to both of the PWM I/O pins in an output
pair. By using the associated duty cycle register and
the appropriate bits in the OVDCON register, the user
may select the following signal output options for each
PWM I/O pin operating in the Independent mode:
I/O pin outputs PWM signal
I/O pin inactive
I/O pin active
14.9 Single Pulse PWM Operation
The PWM module produces single pulse outputs when
the PTCON control bits PTMOD<1:0> = 10. Only edge-
aligned outputs may be produced in the Single Pulse
mode. In Single Pulse mode, the PWM I/O pin(s) are
driven to the active state when the PTEN bit is set.
When a match with a duty cycle register occurs, the
PWM I/O pin is driven to the inactive state. When a
match with the PTPER register occurs, the PTMR reg-
ister is cleared, all active PWM I/O pins are driven to
the inactive state, the PTEN bit is cleared, and an
interrupt is generated.
14.10 PWM Output Override
The PWM output override bits allow the user to manu-
ally drive the PWM I/O pins to specified logic states,
independent of the duty cycle comparison units.
All control bits associated with the PWM output over-
ride function are contained in the OVDCON register.
The upper half of the OVDCON register contains six
bits, POVDxH<3:1> and POVDxL<3:1>, that determine
which PWM I/O pins will be overridden. The lower half
of the OVDCON register contains six bits,
POUTxH<3:1> and POUTxL<3:1>, that determine the
state of the PWM I/O pins when a particular output is
overridden via the POVD bits.
14.10.1 COMPLEMENTARY OUTPUT MODE
When a PWMxL pin is driven active via the OVDCON
register, the output signal is forced to be the comple-
ment of the corresponding PWMxH pin in the pair.
Dead-time insertion is still performed when PWM
channels are overridden manually.
14.10.2 OVERRIDE SYNCHRONIZATION
If the OSYNC bit in the PWMCON2 register is set, all
output overrides performed via the OVDCON register
are synchronized to the PWM time base. Synchronous
output overrides occur at the following times:
Edge-Aligned mode, when PTMR is zero.
Center-Aligned modes, when PTMR is zero and
when the value of PTMR matches PTPER.
Duty Cycle Generator
PWMxH
PWMxL
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14.11 PWM Output and Polarity Control
There are three device Configuration bits associated
with the PWM module that provide PWM output pin
control:
HPOL Configuration bit
LPOL Configuration bit
PWMPIN Configuration bit
These three bits in the FBORPOR Configuration regis-
ter (see Section 19.6 “Device Configuration Regis-
ters”) work in conjunction with the three PWM enable
bits (PWMEN<3:1>) located in the PWMCON1 SFR.
The Configuration bits and PWM enable bits ensure
that the PWM pins are in the correct states after a
device Reset occurs. The PWMPIN configuration fuse
allows the PWM module outputs to be optionally
enabled on a device Reset. If PWMPIN = 0, the PWM
outputs will be driven to their inactive states at Reset. If
PWMPIN = 1 (default), the PWM outputs will be tri-
stated. The HPOL bit specifies the polarity for the
PWMxH outputs, whereas the LPOL bit specifies the
polarity for the PWMxL outputs.
14.11.1 OUTPUT PIN CONTROL
The PENxH and PENxL control bits in the PWMCON1
SFR enable each high PWM output pin and each low
PWM output pin, respectively. If a particular PWM out-
put pin not enabled, it is treated as a general purpose
I/O pin.
14.12 PWM FLTA Pin
There is one Fault input pin (FLTA) associated with the
PWM module. When asserted, this pin can optionally
drive each of the PWM I/O pins to a defined state.
14.12.1 FAULT PIN ENABLE BITS
The FLTACON SFR has 4 control bits that determine
whether a particular pair of PWM I/O pins is to be con-
trolled by the FLTA input pin. To enable a specific PWM
I/O pin pair for FLTA overrides, the corresponding bit
should be set in the FLTACON register.
If all enable bits are cleared in the FLTACON register,
then the FLTA input pin has no effect on the PWM
module and the pin may be used as a general purpose
interrupt or I/O pin.
14.12.2 FAULT STATES
The FLTACON special function register has eight bits
that determine the state of each PWM I/O pin when it is
overridden by a FLTA input. When these bits are
cleared, the PWM I/O pin is driven to the inactive state.
If the bit is set, the PWM I/O pin will be driven to the
active state. The active and inactive states are refer-
enced to the polarity defined for each PWM I/O pin
(HPOL and LPOL polarity control bits).
14.12.3 FAULT INPUT MODES
The FLTA input pin has two modes of operation:
Latched Mode: When the FLTA pin is driven low,
the PWM outputs will go to the states defined in
the FLTACON register. The PWM outputs will
remain in this state until the FLTA pin is driven
high and the corresponding interrupt flag has
been cleared in software. When both of these
actions have occurred, the PWM outputs will
return to normal operation at the beginning of the
next PWM cycle or half-cycle boundary. If the
interrupt flag is cleared before the FLTA condition
ends, the PWM module will wait until the FLTA pin
is no longer asserted to restore the outputs.
Cycle-by-Cycle Mode: When the FLTA input pin
is driven low, the PWM outputs remain in the
defined FLTA states for as long as the FLTA pin is
held low. After the FLTA pin is driven high, the
PWM outputs return to normal operation at the
beginning of the following PWM cycle or
half-cycle boundary.
The Operating mode for the FLTA input pin is selected
using the FLTAM control bit in the FLTACON Special
Function Register.
The FLTA pin can be controlled manually in software.
14.13 PWM Update Lockout
For a complex PWM application, the user may need to
write up to four duty cycle registers and the time base
period register, PTPER, at a given time. In some appli-
cations, it is important that all buffer registers be written
before the new duty cycle and period values are loaded
for use by the module.
The PWM update lockout feature is enabled by setting
the UDIS control bit in the PWMCON2 SFR. The UDIS
bit affects all duty cycle buffer registers and the PWM
time base period buffer, PTPER. No duty cycle
changes or period value changes will have effect while
UDIS = 1.
Note: The FLTA pin logic can operate indepen-
dent of the PWM logic. If all the enable bits
in the FLTACON register are cleared, then
the FLTA pin could be used as a general
purpose interrupt pin. The FLTA pin has
an interrupt vector, interrupt flag bit and
interrupt priority bits associated with it.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 89
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14.14 PWM Special Event Trigger
The PWM module has a special event trigger that
allows A/D conversions to be synchronized to the PWM
time base. The A/D sampling and conversion time may
be programmed to occur at any point within the PWM
period. The special event trigger allows the user to min-
imize the delay between the time when A/D conversion
results are acquired, and the time when the duty cycle
value is updated.
The PWM special event trigger has an SFR named
SEVTCMP, and five control bits to control its operation.
The PTMR value for which a special event trigger
should occur is loaded into the SEVTCMP register.
When the PWM time base is in an Up/Down Counting
mode, an additional control bit is required to specify the
counting phase for the special event trigger. The count
phase is selected using the SEVTDIR control bit in the
SEVTCMP SFR. If the SEVTDIR bit is cleared, the spe-
cial event trigger will occur on the upward counting
cycle of the PWM time base. If the SEVTDIR bit is set,
the special event trigger will occur on the downward
count cycle of the PWM time base. The SEVTDIR
control bit has no effect unless the PWM time base is
configured for an Up/Down Counting mode.
14.14.1 SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
POSTSCALER
The PWM special event trigger has a postscaler that
allows a 1:1 to 1:16 postscale ratio. The postscaler is
configured by writing the SEVOPS<3:0> control bits in
the PWMCON2 SFR.
The special event output postscaler is cleared on the
following events:
Any write to the SEVTCMP register
Any device Reset
14.15 PWM Operation During CPU Sleep
Mode
The FLTA input pin has the ability to wake the CPU
from Sleep mode. The PWM module generates an
interrupt if the FLTA pin is driven low while in Sleep.
14.16 PWM Operation During CPU Idle
Mode
The PTCON SFR contains a PTSIDL control bit. This
bit determines if the PWM module will continue to
operate or stop when the device enters Idle mode. If
PTSIDL = 0, the module will continue to operate. If
PTSIDL = 1, the module will stop operation as long as
the CPU remains in Idle mode.
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TABLE 14-1: PWM REGISTER MAP
SFR Name Addr. Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Reset State
PTCON 01C0 PTEN —PTSIDL ———— PTOPS<3:0> PTCKPS<1:0> PTMOD<1:0> 0000 0000 0000 0000
PTMR 01C2 PTDIR PWM Timer Count Value 0000 0000 0000 0000
PTPER 01C4 PWM Time Base Period Register 0011 1111 1111 1111
SEVTCMP 01C6 SEVTDIR PWM Special Event Compare Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
PWMCON1 01C8 — — PTMOD3 PTMOD2 PTMOD1 PEN3H PEN2H PEN1H PEN3L PEN2L PEN1L 0000 0000 0111 0111
PWMCON2 01CA — — SEVOPS<3:0> — — IUE OSYNC UDIS 0000 0000 0000 0000
DTCON1 01CC DTBPS<1:0> DTB<5:0> DTAPS<1:0> Dead Time A Value 0000 0000 0000 0000
FLTACON 01D0 FAOV3H FAOV3L FAOV2H FAOV2L FAOV1H FAOV1L FLTAM — — FAEN3 FAEN2 FAEN1 0000 0000 0000 0000
OVDCON 01D4 POVD3H POVD3L POVD2H POVD2L POVD1H POVD1L POUT3H POUT3L POUT2H POUT2L POUT1H POUT1L 0011 1111 0000 0000
PDC1 01D6 PWM Duty Cycle 1 Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
PDC2 01D8 PWM Duty Cycle 2 Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
PDC3 01DA PWM Duty Cycle 3 Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend: — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0
Note: Refer to the “dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual” (DS70046) for descriptions of register bit fields.
© 2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS70118J-page 91
dsPIC30F2010
15.0 SPI MODULE
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) module is a syn-
chronous serial interface. It is useful for communicating
with other peripheral devices such as EEPROMs, shift
registers, display drivers and A/D converters or other
microcontrollers. It is compatible with Motorola's SPI
and SIOP interfaces.
15.1 Operating Function Description
Each SPI module consists of a 16-bit shift register,
SPIxSR (where x = 1 or 2), used for shifting data in
and out, and a buffer register, SPIxBUF. A control reg-
ister, SPIxCON, configures the module. Additionally, a
status register, SPIxSTAT, indicates various status
conditions.
The serial interface consists of 4 pins: SDIx (serial
data input), SDOx (serial data output), SCKx (shift
clock input or output) and SSx (active-low slave
select).
In Master mode operation, SCK is a clock output, but
in Slave mode, it is a clock input.
A series of eight (8) or sixteen (16) clock pulses shifts
out bits from the SPIxSR to SDOx pin and simultane-
ously shifts in data from SDIx pin. An interrupt is gen-
erated when the transfer is complete and the
corresponding interrupt flag bit (SPI1IF or SPI2IF) is
set. This interrupt can be disabled through an interrupt
enable bit (SPI1IE or SPI2IE).
The receive operation is double-buffered. When a
complete byte is received, it is transferred from
SPIxSR to SPIxBUF.
If the receive buffer is full when new data is being
transferred from SPIxSR to SPIxBUF, the module will
set the SPIROV bit, indicating an overflow condition.
The transfer of the data from SPIxSR to SPIxBUF will
not be completed and the new data will be lost. The
module will not respond to SCL transitions while SPI-
ROV is ‘1’, effectively disabling the module until SPIx-
BUF is read by user software.
Transmit writes are also double-buffered. The user
writes to SPIxBUF. When the master or slave transfer
is completed, the contents of the shift register
(SPIxSR) is moved to the receive buffer. If any trans-
mit data has been written to the buffer register, the
contents of the transmit buffer are moved to SPIxSR.
The received data is thus placed in SPIxBUF and the
transmit data in SPIxSR is ready for the next transfer.
In Master mode, the clock is generated by prescaling
the system clock. Data is transmitted as soon as a
value is written to SPIxBUF. The interrupt is generated
at the middle of the transfer of the last bit.
In Slave mode, data is transmitted and received as
external clock pulses appear on SCK. Again, the inter-
rupt is generated when the last bit is latched. If SSx
control is enabled, then transmission and reception
are enabled only when SSx = low. The SDOx output
will be disabled in SSx mode with SSx high.
The clock provided to the module is (FOSC/4). This
clock is then prescaled by the primary (PPRE<1:0>)
and the secondary (SPRE<2:0>) prescale factors. The
CKE bit determines whether transmit occurs on transi-
tion from active clock state to Idle clock state, or vice
versa. The CKP bit selects the Idle state (high or low)
for the clock.
15.1.1 WORD AND BYTE
COMMUNICATION
A control bit, MODE16 (SPIxCON<10>), allows the
module to communicate in either 16-bit or 8-bit mode.
16-bit operation is identical to 8-bit operation, except
that the number of bits transmitted is 16 instead of 8.
The user software must disable the module prior to
changing the MODE16 bit. The SPI module is reset
when the MODE16 bit is changed by the user.
A basic difference between 8-bit and 16-bit operation is
that the data is transmitted out of bit 7 of the SPIxSR for
8-bit operation, and data is transmitted out of bit 15 of
the SPIxSR for 16-bit operation. In both modes, data is
shifted into bit 0 of the SPIxSR.
15.1.2 SDOx DISABLE
A control bit, DISSDO, is provided to the SPIxCON reg-
ister to allow the SDOx output to be disabled. This will
allow the SPI module to be connected in an input only
configuration. SDO can also be used for general
purpose I/O.
Note: This data sheet summarizes features of
this group of dsPIC30F devices and is not
intended to be a complete reference
source. For more information on the CPU,
peripherals, register descriptions and
general device functionality, refer to the
dsPIC30F Family Reference Manual
(DS70046). Note: Both the transmit buffer (SPIxTXB) and
the receive buffer (SPIxRXB) are mapped
to the same register address, SPIxBUF.
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15.2 Framed SPI Support
The module supports a basic framed SPI protocol in
Master or Slave mode. The control bit FRMEN enables