VHB™ Tape Appl Bulletin Datasheet by 3M (TC)

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Surface Preparation for
3MVHBTape Applications
Summary Most substrates are best prepared by cleaning with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and
water* (approximately 50% to 70% IPA) prior to applying 3M™ VHB™ Tapes.
Exceptions to this general procedure that may require additional surface preparation include:
Heavy Oils: A degreaser or solvent-based cleaner may be required to remove heavy oil or
grease from a surface and should be followed by cleaning with IPA/water.
Abrasion: Abrading a surface, followed by cleaning with IPA/water, can remove heavy dirt or
oxidation and can increase surface area to improve adhesion.
Adhesion Promoters: Priming a surface can significantly improve initial and ultimate
adhesion to many materials such as plastics and paints.
Porous Surfaces: Most porous and fibered materials such as wood, particleboard, concrete, etc.
need to be sealed to provide a unified surface.
Unique Materials: Special surface preparation may be needed for glass and glass-like
materials, copper and copper containing metals and plastics or rubber that contain components
that migrate (e.g. plasticizers).
General
3M VHB
Tape
Bonding
Procedure
To obtain optimum adhesion, the bonding
surfaces must be stable or unified, clean and
dry. A common surface cleaning solvent is
IPA/water mixture.* (Steps A and B)
As a pressure-sensitive adhesive, bond
strength is dependent upon the amount of
adhesive-to-surface contact developed. Firm
application pressure develops better adhesive
contact and helps improve bond strength.
Generally, this means that the tape should
experience >15 psi (>100 kPa) in roll down
or platen pressure. (Steps C and D)
After application, the bond strength will
increase as the adhesive flows onto the
surface. At room temperature,
approximately 50% of the ultimate strength
will be achieved after 20 minutes, 90% after
24 hours and 100% after 72 hours. Handling
Strength is typically achieved immediately
after application of pressure to the bonded
components. In some cases, bond strength
can be increased and ultimate bond strength
can be achieved more quickly by exposure
of the bond to elevated temperatures (e.g.
150 °F (66 °C) for 1 hour).
* Note: These cleaner solutions contain greater than 250 g/l of volatile
organic compounds (VOC). Please consult your local Air Quality Regulations to be sure the cleaner is compliant. When using
solvents, be sure to follow the manufacturer’s precautions and directions for use when handling such materials.
Technical Bulletin October, 2017
Technical Bulletin
Surface Preparation for 3MVHBTape Applications
Heavy Oils On surfaces with a light oily film, or other light contamination, the IPA/water solution is usually
adequate. Where heavy oils or grease are present, a “degreasing” solvent such as 3M™ Prep Solvent 70,
3M Adhesive
Remover,
3M™
Citrus
Base
cleaner,
acetone,
mineral
spirits,
naphtha
or
similar
solvents
can be used
to cut the oil. When cleaning with solvents, always follow with an IPA/water clean to
remove any residue or film that may be present.
Abrasion
Adhesion
Promoters
Abrading a surface can serve several functions:
Remove heavy levels of dirt or oxide from metals or paints.
Create additional surface area that can increase adhesion.
Smooth a textured surface to obtain more flatness, allowing improved contact area and adhesion.
A finely abraded surface (approximately 180 to 320 grit scratch) can help adhesion to many paints and
plastics. Very small scratches on the surface, generated with circular motion rather than straight-line
motion, are most desirable. Micro-scratches on a surface increases the available surface area to bond to
resulting
in
greater
initial
adhesion
and
achieving
higher ultimate strength.
3M
Scotch-Brite
® Hand
Pads (7447 Maroon or Heavy Duty Green) are optimal for achieving the right level of abrasion.
Powered sanders (e.g., palm or dual-action sanders) will assist on large surface areas. Avoid grinding a
surface with coarse abrasive materials, as they can create too much texture for the adhesive to adequately
flow into the surface. Always clean the surface with the IPA/water solution or methods previously
described, and be certain that loose particles are removed from the abraded surface prior to bonding.
Exceptions to these abrading guidelines are 3M™ VHB™ Tapes 4932 and 4952, as they typically
perform best on smooth, glossy surfaces and abrasion may reduce the bond strength.
Priming a surface can significantly improve initial and ultimate adhesion to many materials such as
plastics and paints because of their low surface energy or process additives they may contain. A primer
creates a new surface for 3M VHB Tape to adhere to and can also create a layer that may impede the
migration of additives that may be present in a material. It is important for the user to determine the
suitability of the 3M VHB Tape, the adhesion promoter and the application process.
Porous
Surfaces
Rough, porous or fibered materials such as wood, particleboard, cement, etc., have an open surface and
require sealing to provide a unified surface for tape bonding. Common sealing materials would include
paint, varnish or other hard surface coatings. Fast drying 3M™ Rubber and Vinyl Spray 80 can also be
used to unify the surface and improve the tape bond.
Unique
Surfaces
Glass, stone, ceramic or other siliceous materials are hydrophilic (water-loving) by nature. Normally,
the hydrophilic nature makes pressure sensitive adhesive bond durability susceptible to change under
high humidity or exposure to moisture. In basic terms, water vapor can undercut the tape bond and
interfere with the normal adhesion forces. Silane coupling agents, added to the IPA/water cleaning
solution, can help reduce the “water-loving” tendency of these surfaces and enhance the tape bond in
high moisture environments.
Copper, brass, and bronze are prone to oxidation even after the 3M VHB Tape is applied. To prevent a
weakening of the bond, a lacquer or varnish should be applied to these surfaces. Be sure to test the tape
bond to the sealer on a metal surface to verify good adhesion.
Flexible PVC (vinyl) contains plasticizers that can migrate into the tape and affect adhesion. There are
several 3M VHB Tapes that are formulated to be resistant to plasticizer migration, or 3M™ Scotch-
Grip™ Plastic Adhesive 2262, thinned, can serve as a barrier to migration. Rubber materials (e.g.
EPDM, neoprene) can have low surface energy and may also contain plasticizers and oils. These
require the use of an adhesion promoter for stable bond strength. Test for compatibility with flexible
PVC and rubber materials by aging bonded samples for 7-days at 150°F (66°C) and check for
softening of the adhesive, discoloration or reduction in bond strength.
* Note: These cleaner solutions contain greater than 250 g/l of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Please consult your local Air
Quality Regulations to be sure the cleaner is compliant. When using solvents, be sure to follow the manufacturer’s precautions
and directions for use when handling such materials.
- 2 -
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Technical Bulletin
Surface Preparation for 3MVHBTape Applications
Suggested Primers The table below offers suggested primers and alternative methods for surfaces that commonly
require primers, adhesion promoters or other surface treatments for successful use with 3M
VHB Tapes. This list is not intended to be fully comprehensive but may be useful for many
applications. It is very important for the user to determine the suitability of the 3M VHB Tape,
primer and application process and compliance with local Air Quality Regulations*.
Surface
Concern
Suggested Primer
Alternatives
Steel or Aluminum
Surface must be clean
None suggested
Abrasion may clean surface, or use 3M
Adhesion Promoter 111 or 3M Tape Primer 94
or
3M VHB Tape Universal Primer UV
Copper, Brass, Bronze
Oxidation after bonding
Lacquer or varnish
(a)
Architectural grade coatings
Concrete, Brick
Non-unified or rough surface,
moisture
3M™ Rubber and Vinyl Spray 80
Concrete sealer, paint
Glass, Stone, Ceramic Tile
High humidity, moisture
3M™ Silane Glass Treatment AP 115 or
similar silane coupling agent in IPA/water
mixture(a)
3M Tape Primer 94
Wood (soft, hard
particle board, etc.)
Weak fiber layer on surface
(e.g., low surface strength)
3M Rubber and Vinyl Spray 80,
3M
Fastbond™ 30 Contact Adhesive
Urethane paint, varnish
Plastics:
Polyolefin
Non-olefin
Low adhesion
Additives, low adhesion
3M Tape Primer 94 or 3M™ VHB™ Tape
Universal
Primer UV (additional surface
preparation may be required)
3M Tape Primer 94 or 3M VHB
Tape
Universal Primer UV
Flame treatment, Corona treatment
Abrade or 3M™ VHB™ Tape Family 5952
Polyurethane
(Molded or Rubber)
Mold release, low adhesion
3M Tape Primer
94, 3M VHB Tape
Universal Primer UV
(additional surface
preparation may be required), or 3M
Adhesion Promoter 111
Abrade followed by priming
Rubber: Neoprene, Santoprene
EPDM
Migrating oils
Low adhesion
3M Tape Primer 94 or 3M VHB Tape Universal
Primer UV (additional surface preparation
may be required)
3M Tape Primer 94 or 3M VHB Tape
U Universal Primer
UV
3MHeat-Activated Tapes
3M Heat-Activated Tapes
Paints
Low adhesion
3M Adhesion Promoter 111
Abrade or 3M VHB Tape Family 5952 or 3M
Tape Primer 94 or 3M VHB Tape
Universal
Primer UV
Coil Coated Aluminum
Low adhesion
3M Adhesion Promoter 111
Abrade or 3M VHB Tape Family 5952 or 3M
Tape Primer 94 or 3M VHB Tape
Universal
Primer UV
Flexible PVC (Vinyl)
Plasticizer migration
3MScotch-Grip
Plastic Adhesive
2262
(b)
,
3M Rubber and Vinyl Spray 80
3M™ VHB™ Tapes 4945 and 4941
(test for migration)
* Note: These cleaner solutions contain greater than 250 g/l of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Please consult your local Air
Quality Regulations to be sure the cleaner is compliant. When using solvents, be sure to follow the manufacturer’s precautions
and directions for use when handling such materials.
(a) Refer to supplier of lacquer, varnish, or silane coupling agent for information on VOC content.
(b) 3M Scotch-Grip Plastic Adhesive 2262 contains 183 g/l VOC.
Primer
Source and
Description
3M Tape Primer 94, 3M Adhesion Promoter 111, 3M VHB Tape Universal Primer UV, and 3M Silane
Glass Treatment AP 115 are available through distributors who carry 3M VHB Tapes.
3M Scotch-Grip Plastic Adhesive 2262 must be thinned in acetone or MEK* in a 1:5 or 1:10 ratio (e.g., 1 part
Scotch-Grip plastic adhesive 2262 to 5 parts acetone or MEK). The product is also available premixed as 3M
Scotch-Grip Plastic Adhesive 2262AT (3.5 g/l VOC).*
Silane Coupling Agent is also available premixed in a 91:9 IPA/water solution or as a concentrate. A 0.5 wt.
% level of silane(c) adhesion promoter diluted in a 91:9 IPA/water cleaning solution has been found to be
sufficient. Suggested sources for silane coupling agents:
Custom-Pak Products, Inc. www.custompakproducts.com available premixed in IPA/water
Lancaster Synthesis, Inc. www.lancastersynthesis.com available 100% concentrated
(c) Note: Be sure to read and follow silane and solvent manufacturer’s precautions and directions for use for proper
handling and storage information. - 3 -
ISO 9001
Technical Bulletin
Surface Preparation for 3MVHBTape Applications
Verification Because 3M cannot anticipate all of the different possible surfaces and contaminants
that may exist, it is imperative that the user conduct an evaluation to determine the
suitability of 3M™ VHB™ Tapes, surface preparations procedures, and any other
processes that may have an influence on the performance of the tape or the bonded
parts. Likewise, where there are any changes in plastic or paint formulation, or
suppliers of these materials, it is advisable to run evaluations to ensure that the
change has not influenced the compatibility of the surface with 3M VHB Tapes.
Pressure Applicators
(Hand-held J-Rollers)
Beno J. Gundlach Company
Gundlach V300-SB Pressure Roller
www.benojgundlach.com
Phone: 618-233-1781
Rockler Woodworking and Hardware
High Pressure J Roller #50014
www.rockler.com
Phone: 800-279-4441
Marshalltown Company
2" Flat Solid Rubber Seam Roller Item
19560, PN E54D
www.marshalltown.com
Technical Information The technical information, recommendations and other statements contained in this
document are based upon tests or experience that 3M believes are reliable, but the
accuracy or completeness of such information is not guaranteed.
Product Use Many factors beyond 3M’s control and uniquely within user’s knowledge and control
can affect the use and performance of a 3M product in a particular application. Given
the variety of factors that can affect the use and performance of a 3M product, user is
solely responsible for evaluating the 3M product and determining whether it is fit for
a particular purpose and suitable for user’s method of application.
Limited Warranty 3M warrants for 24 months from the date of manufacture that 3M™ VHB™ Tape will be free of
defects in material and manufacture. 3M MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. This limited warranty does
not cover damage resulting from the use or inability to use 3M™ VHB™ Tape due to misuse,
workmanship in application, or application or storage not in accordance with 3M recommended
procedures. AN APPLICATION WARRANTY EXPRESSLY APPROVED AND ISSUED BY 3M IS
AN EXCEPTION. THE CUSTOMER MUST APPLY FOR A SPECIFIC APPLICATION
WARRANTY AND MEET ALL WARRANTY AND PROCESS REQUIREMENTS TO OBTAIN
AN APPLICATION WARRANTY. CONTACT 3M FOR MORE INFORMATION ON
APPLICATION WARRANTY TERMS AND CONDITIONS.
Limitation of
Remedies and
Liability
If the 3M™ VHB™ Tape is proved to be defective within the warranty period stated above.
THE EXCLUSIVE REMEDY, AT 3M’S OPTION, SHALL BE TO REFUND THE
PURCHASE PRICE OF OR TO REPAIR OR REPLACE THE DEFECTIVE 3M™ VHB™
TAPE. 3M shall not otherwise be liable for loss or damages, whether direct, indirect, special,
incidental, or consequential, regardless of the legal theory asserted, including negligence,
warranty, or strict liability.
This Industrial Adhesives and Tapes Division product was manufactured under a 3M quality system registered to ISO 9001 standards.
Industrial Adhesives and Tapes Division
3M Center, Building 225-3S-06
St. Paul, MN 55144-1000
800-362-3550
www.3M.com/VHB
- 4 -
Scotch-Brite is a registered trademark of
3M Company.
3M, VHB and Scotch-Grip are trademarks
of 3M Company.
©3M 2017 70070487015 (10/17)

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