MAX31850,51 Datasheet by Maxim Integrated

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MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
General Description
The MAX31850/MAX31851 cold-junction compensat-
ed, 1-WireM thermocouple-to-digital converters perform
cold-junction compensation and digitize the signal from
a K-, J-, N-, T-, S-, R-, or E-type thermocouple. The con-
verters resolve temperatures to 0.25NC, allow readings
as high as +1768NC and as low as -270NC, and exhibit
thermocouple accuracy of 8 LSBs (2NC) for temperatures
ranging from -200NC to +700NC.
Communication with the master microcontroller is over a
1-Wire bus that by definition requires only one data line
(and ground) for communication. Operating power can
be obtained directly from the data line (“parasite power”),
eliminating the need for an external power supply.
Each device has a unique 64-bit serial code, which
allows multiple units to function on the same 1-Wire bus.
Therefore, it is simple to use one microcontroller (the
master device) to monitor temperature from many ther-
mocouples distributed over a large area.
Four location address inputs simplify mapping of
individual units to specific locations.
Benefits and Features
S Integration Reduces Design Time and Lowers
System Cost
• 14-Bit, 0.25NC Resolution
• Integrated Cold-Junction Compensation
• Available for Multiple Thermocouples Types:
Supports K-, J-, N-, T-, and E-Type (MAX31850);
S- and R-Type (MAX31851)
• Detects Thermocouple Shorts to GND or VDD
• Detects Open Thermocouple
S 1-Wire Multiddrop Capability Simplifies
Multisensor Systems
• 1-Wire Interface (Read-Only); Power Can Be
Obtained from Interface (Parasite-Powered Mode)
Applications
Industrial
Appliances
HVAC
Medical
Block Diagram
19-6725; Rev 2; 1/15
Ordering Information appears at end of data sheet.
1-Wire is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
For related parts and recommended products to use with this part, refer to: www.maximintegrated.com/MAX31850.related
EVALUATION KIT AVAILABLE
MAX31850
MAX31851
64-BIT ROM
AND
1-Wire PORT
ADC
PARASITE-
POWER
CIRCUIT
CPP
DQ
VDD
GND
MEMORY
CONTROL LOGIC
COLD-JUNCTION
COMPENSATION
FAULT
DETECTION
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
POWER-
SUPPLY
SENSE
ADDRESS PIN INPUT
AD0 AD1 AD2 AD3
SCRATCHPAD
S5
S1
S3
T+
T-
S2
S4
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at
1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim Integrated’s website at www.maximintegrated.com.
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
2Maxim Integrated
Supply Voltage Range (VDD to GND) .................. -0.3V to +4.0V
All Other Pins ............................................ -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70NC)
TDFN (derate 16.70mW/NC above +70NC) ........... 1333.30mW
ESD Protection (All Pins, Human Body Model) ...................±2kV
Operating Temperature Range ........................ -40NC to +125NC
Junction Temperature .....................................................+150NC
Storage Temperature Range .......................... -65NC to +150NC
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) ................................+300NC
Soldering Temperature (reflow) .....................................+260NC
TDFN
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (BJA) ..........60NC/W
Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (BJC) ...............30NC/W
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Note 1: Package thermal resistances were obtained using the method described in JEDEC specification JESD51-7, using a four-layer
board. For detailed information on package thermal considerations, refer to www.maximintegrated.com/thermal-tutorial.
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional opera-
tion of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
PACKAGE THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS (Note 1)
DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(TA = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Supply Voltage VDD Local power (Note 3, 4) 3.0 3.3 3.7 V
Pullup Supply Voltage
(Notes 3, 4) VPU
Parasite power (Note 3) 3.0 3.7 V
Local power (Note 3) 3.0 VDD
Input Logic-Low VIL (Notes 4, 6) -0.3 +0.8 V
Input Logic-High (Note 4) VIH
Local power 2.2
lower
of 3.7V
or
(VDD +
0.3V)
V
Parasite power 3.0
lower
of 3.7V
or
(VDD +
0.3V)
Output Sink Current ILVI/O = 0.4V (Note 4) 4.0 mA
Standby Supply Current IDDS (Notes 7, 8) 280 1000 nA
Active Supply Current IDD VDD = 3.7V (Note 9) 900 1750 FA
DQ Input Current IDQ (Note 10) 5FA
Power-Supply Rejection -0.3 °C/V
Input Leakage Current (AD0–AD3 Pins) (Note 3) -1 +1 FA
Thermocouple Input Bias Current IBTC TA = -40°C to +125°C, 100mV across
the thermocouple inputs (Note 3) -100 +100 nA
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
3Maxim Integrated
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
(3.0V P VDD P 3.6V, TA = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
MAX31850K Thermocouple
Temperature Gain and Offset
Error (41.276FV/NC nominal
sensitivity) (Note 11)
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -100NC to +100NC,
TA = 0NC to +70NC (Note 12) -1 +1
NC
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -200NC to +700NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -2 +2
TTHERMOCOUPLE = +700NC to +1372NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -4 +4
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -270NC to +1372NC,
TA = -40NC to +125NC (Note 12) -6 +6
MAX31850J Thermocouple
Temperature Gain and Offset
Error (57.953FV/NC nominal
sensitivity) (Note 11)
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -100NC to +100NC,
TA = 0NC to +70NC (Note 12) -1 +1
NC
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -210NC to +750NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -2 +2
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -210NC to +1200NC,
TA = -40NC to +125NC (Note 12) -4 +4
MAX31850N Thermocouple
Temperature Gain and Offset
Error (36.256FV/NC nominal
sensitivity) (Note 11)
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -100NC to +100NC,
TA = 0NC to +70NC (Note 12) -1 +1
NC
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -200NC to +700NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -2 +2
TTHERMOCOUPLE = +700NC to +1300NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -4 +4
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -270NC to +1300NC,
TA = -40NC to +125NC (Note 12) -6 +6
MAX31850T Thermocouple
Temperature Gain and Offset
Error (52.18FV/NC nominal
sensitivity) (Note 11)
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -100NC to +100NC,
TA = 0NC to +70NC (Note 12) -1 +1
NC
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -270NC to +400NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -2 +2
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -270NC to +400NC,
TA = -40NC to +125NC (Note 12) -4 +4
MAX31850E Thermocouple
Temperature Gain and Offset
Error (76.373FV/NC nominal
sensitivity) (Note 11)
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -120NC to +100NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -1 +1
NC
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -200NC to +700NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -2 +2
TTHERMOCOUPLE = +700NC to +1000NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -4 +4
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -270NC to +1000NC,
TA = -40NC to +125NC (Note 12) -5 +5
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
4Maxim Integrated
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(3.0V P VDD P 3.6V, TA = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 2)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
MAX31851R Thermocouple
Temperature Gain and Offset
Error (10.506FV/NC nominal
sensitivity) (Note 11)
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -50NC to +100NC,
TA = 0NC to +70NC (Note 12) -2 +2
NC
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -50NC to +700NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -3 +3
TTHERMOCOUPLE = +700NC to +1768NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -5 +5
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -50NC to +1768NC,
TA = -40NC to +125NC (Note 12) -7 +7
MAX31851S Thermocouple
Temperature Gain and Offset
Error (9.587FV/NC nominal
sensitivity) (Note 11)
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -50NC to +150NC,
TA = 0NC to +70NC (Note 12) -2 +2
NC
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -50NC to +700NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -3 +3
TTHERMOCOUPLE = +700NC to +1768NC,
TA = -20NC to +85NC (Note 12) -5 +5
TTHERMOCOUPLE = -50NC to +1768NC,
TA = -40NC to +125NC (Note 12) -7 +7
Thermocouple Temperature Data
Resolution 0.25 NC
Thermocouple Temperature Data
Long-Term Drift Hot junction temperature = +400NC ±0.24 NC
Internal Cold-Junction
Temperature Error TA = -40NC to +100NC (Note 13) -2 +2 NC
Cold-Junction Temperature Data
Resolution TA = -40NC to +125NC 0.0625 NC
Temperature Conversion Time
(Thermocouple, Cold Junction,
Fault Detection)
tCONV (Note 14) 72 100 ms
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
5Maxim Integrated
Note 2: Limits are 100% production tested at TA = +25NC. Limits over the operating temperature range and relevant supply volt-
age range are guaranteed by design and characterization.
Note 3: Limits are 100% production tested at TA = +25NC and +85NC. Limits over the operating temperature range and relevant sup-
ply voltage are guaranteed by design and characterization.
Note 4: All voltages are referenced to GND. Currents entering the IC are specified positive and currents exiting the IC are negative.
Note 5: The pullup supply voltage specification assumes that the pullup device is ideal, and therefore the high level of the pullup
is equal to VPU. To meet the device’s VIH specification, the actual supply rail for the strong pullup transistor must include
margin for the voltage drop across the transistor when it is turned on. Thus: VPU_ACTUAL = VPU_IDEAL + VTRANSISTOR.
Note 6: To guarantee a presence pulse under low-voltage parasite power conditions, VILMAX, may have to be reduced to as low
as 0.5V.
Note 7: Standby current specified up to +70NC.
Note 8: To minimize IDDS, DQ should be within the following ranges: VGND P VDQ P VGND + 0.3V or VDD - 0.3V P VDQ P VDD.
Note 9: Active current refers to supply current during active temperature conversions.
Note 10: DQ is high (high-impedance state with external pullup).
Note 11: Not including cold-junction temperature error or thermocouple nonlinearity.
Note 12: Guaranteed by design. These limits represent six sigma distribution for TA = +25NC to +85NC. Outside this temperature
range, these limits are three sigma distribution.
Note 13: Guaranteed by design. These limits represent a three sigma distribution.
Note 14: After minimum VDD has been reached during power-up, wait 10ms before initiating temperature conversions.
Note 15: See the 1-Wire Timing Diagrams.
Note 16: Under parasite power, if tRSTL > 960Fs, a power-on reset (POR) may occur.
Note 17: Represents the maximum capacitive load that may be applied to the pins and still maintain timing and logic state.
1-Wire TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
(3.0V P VDD P 3.6V, TA = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted.) (Notes 2, 3)
PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Time to Strong Pullup On tSPON Start Convert T command issued 8 µs
Time Slot tSLOT (Note 15) 60 120 µs
Recovery Time tREC (Note 15) 1 µs
Write-0 Low Time tLOW0 (Note 15) 60 120 µs
Write-1 Low Time tLOW1 (Note 15) 1 15 µs
Read Data Valid tRDV (Note 15) 15 µs
Reset Time High tRSTH (Note 15) 480 µs
Reset Time Low tRSTL (Notes 15, 16) 480 µs
Presence Detect High tPDHIGH (Note 15) 15 60 µs
Presence Detect Low tPDLOW (Note 15) 60 240 µs
Capacitance: DQ CIN/OUT (Note 17) 25 pF
Capacitance: AD0–AD3 CIN_ADD (Note 17) 50 pF
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
6Maxim Integrated
1-Wire Timing Diagrams
1-Wire WRITE-ZERO TIME SLOT
1-Wire READ-ZERO TIME SLOT
1-Wire RESET PULSE
1-Wire PRESENCE DETECT
RESET PULSE FROM HOST
PRESENCE DETECT
tSLOT
tSLOT
tRSTL tRSTH
START OF NEXT CYCLE
START OF NEXT CYCLE
tLOW0
tREC
tREC
tPDHIGH
tPDLOW
tRDV
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
7Maxim Integrated
Typical Operating Characteristics
(VCC = +3.3V, TA = +25NC, unless otherwise noted.)
ADC ACCURACY vs. ADC INPUT
VOLTAGE ACROSS VCC
MAX31850 toc05
ADC INPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
ADC ACCURACY (°C)
4020
-0.25
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
0
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
-0.30
0 60
INTERNAL TEMPERATURE = +25°C
VCC = 3.7V
VCC = 3.3V
VCC = 3.0V
ADC ACCURACY vs. ADC INPUT VOLTAGE
ACROSS TEMPERATURE
MAX31850 toc04
ADC INPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
ADC ACCURACY (°C)
4020
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
-0.5
0 60
VCC = 3.3V
TA = +125°C
TA = -40°C
TA = +85°C
TA = +25°C
STANDBY SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. TEMPERATURE
MAX31850 toc02
TEMPERATURE (°C)
STANDBY SUPPLY CURRENT (nA)
12010060 800 20 40-20
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0
-40
VCC = 3.7V
INTERNAL TEMPERATURE
SENSOR ACCURACY
MAX31850 toc03
TEMPERATURE (°C)
MEASUREMENT ERROR (°C)
1008040 600 20-20
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
-0.4
-40 120
VCC = 3.3V
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. TEMPERATURE
MAX31850 toc01
TEMPERATURE (°C)
ACTIVE SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
100 120806040200-20
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0
-40
VCC = 3.7V
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
8Maxim Integrated
Pin Description
Pin Configuration
PIN NAME FUNCTION
1 GND Ground
2 T- Thermocouple Input. See Table 1. Do not connect to GND.
3 T+ Thermocouple Input. See Table 1.
4 VDD Power-Supply Voltage
5 DQ Data Input/Output. Open-drain 1-Wire interface pin. Also provides power to the device when used in
parasite-power mode (see the Parasite Power section.)
6 AD0 Location Address Input (Least Significant Bit)
7 AD1 Location Address Input
8 AD2 Location Address Input
9 AD3 Location Address Input (Most Significant Bit)
10 DNC Do Not Connect
EP Exposed Pad. No internal connection. Connect to GND or leave unconnected.
+EP
6
AD0
7
AD1
10
DNC
9
AD3
8
AD2
DQVDD
GND T- T+
54
1 2 3
TDFN-EP
(3mm x 4mm)
TOP VIEW
MAX31850
MAX31851
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
9Maxim Integrated
Detailed Description
The MAX31850/MAX31851 are sophisticated thermo-
couple-to-digital converters with a built-in 14-bit analog-
to-digital converter (ADC), cold-junction compensation
sensing and correction, a digital controller, a 1-Wire
data interface, and associated control logic. The devices
are available in several versions, each optimized and
trimmed for a specific thermocouple type (K, J, N, T, S,
R, or E.). The thermocouple type is indicated in the suffix
of the part number (e.g., MAX31850K). See the Ordering
Information table for all options.
The 1-Wire bus by definition requires only one data line
(and ground) for communication with a central microcon-
troller. The data line requires a weak pullup resistor since
all devices are linked to the bus through a three-state or
open-drain port (i.e., the DQ pin). Four location address
inputs simplify mapping of individual devices to specific
locations.
Each device has a unique 64-bit serial code, allowing
multiple devices to function on the same 1-Wire bus.
Therefore, it is simple to use one microcontroller to con-
trol many devices distributed over a large area. In this
bus system, the microcontroller identifies and addresses
devices on the bus using each device’s unique 64-bit
code. Because each device has a unique code, the
number of devices that can be addressed on one bus
is virtually unlimited. The 1-Wire bus protocol, including
detailed explanations of the commands and time slots, is
described in the 1-Wire Bus System section.
The scratchpad memory contains the 2-byte temperature
register that stores the cold-junction-compensated ther-
mocouple temperature data. A second 2-byte register
stores the local cold-junction temperature. Both of these
registers also store fault data for open thermocouple as
well as shorts to supply and ground.
Power may be obtained either from a power supply con-
nected to VDD, or from the 1-Wire pullup resistor through
the DQ pin when the bus is high. The high bus signal also
charges an internal capacitor (CPP), which then supplies
power to the device when the bus is low. This method
of deriving power from the 1-Wire bus is referred to as
“parasite power.”
Temperature Conversion
The devices include signal-conditioning hardware to
convert the thermocouple’s signal into a voltage com-
patible with the input channels of the ADC. The T+
and T- inputs connect to internal circuitry that reduces
the introduction of noise errors from the thermocouple
wires.
Before converting the thermoelectric voltages into equiva-
lent temperature values, it is necessary to compensate for
the difference between the thermocouple cold-junction
side (device ambient temperature) and a 0NC virtual refer-
ence. For a K-type thermocouple, the voltage changes by
approximately 41FV/NC, which approximates the thermo-
couple characteristic with the following linear equation:
VOUT = (41.276FV/NC) x (TR - TAMB)
where VOUT is the thermocouple output voltage (FV), TR
is the temperature of the remote thermocouple junction
(NC), and TAMB is the temperature of the device (NC).
Other thermocouple types use a similar straight-line
approximation but with different gain terms. Note that
the MAX31850/MAX31851 assume a linear relationship
between temperature and voltage. Because all thermo-
couples exhibit some level of nonlinearity, apply appro-
priate correction to the device’s output data.
Cold-Junction Compensation
The function of the thermocouple is to sense a difference
in temperature between two ends of the thermocouple
wires. The thermocouple’s “hot” junction can be read
across the operating temperature range (Table 1). The
reference junction, or “cold” end (which should be at
the same temperature as the board on which the device
is mounted) can range from -55NC to +125NC. While the
temperature at the cold end fluctuates, the device con-
tinues to accurately sense the temperature difference at
the opposite end.
The device senses and corrects for the changes in
the reference junction temperature with cold-junction
compensation. It does this by first measuring its internal
die temperature, which should be held at the same tem-
perature as the reference junction. It then measures the
voltage from the thermocouple’s output at the reference
junction and converts this to the noncompensated ther-
mocouple temperature value. This value is then added
to the device’s die temperature to calculate the thermo-
couple’s “hot junction” temperature. Note that the “hot
junction” temperature can be lower than the cold junction
(or reference junction) temperature.
Optimal performance from the device is achieved when
the thermocouple cold junction and the device are at
the same temperature. Avoid placing heat-generating
devices or components near the MAX31850/MAX31851
because this could produce cold-junction-related errors.
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
10Maxim Integrated
Conversion Functions
During the conversion time, tCONV, three functions are
performed: the temperature conversion of the internal
cold-junction temperature, the temperature conversion of
the external thermocouple, and the detection of thermo-
couple faults.
When executing the temperature conversion for the inter-
nal cold-junction compensation circuit, the connection to
signal from the external thermocouple is opened (switch
S4) and the connection to the cold-junction compensa-
tion circuit is closed (switch S5). The internal T- reference
to ground is still maintained (switch S3 is closed) and
the connections to the fault-detection circuit are open
(switches S1 and S2).
When executing the temperature conversion of the
external thermocouple, the connections to the internal
fault-detection circuit are opened (switches S1 and S2 in
the Block Diagram) and the switch connecting the cold-
junction compensation circuit is opened (switch S5). The
internal ground reference connection (switch S3) and
the connection to the ADC (switch S4) are closed. This
allows the ADC to process the voltage detected across
the T+ and T- terminals. If T+ and T- are unconnected,
the thermocouple temperature sign bit is 0 (MSbit of
Scratchpad Byte 1), and the remainder of the thermo-
couple temperature value is 1.
During fault detection, the connections from the exter-
nal thermocouple and cold-junction compensation
circuit to the ADC are opened (switches S4 and S5,
see the Block Diagram). The internal ground reference
on T- is also opened (switch S3). The connections to
the internal fault-detection circuit are closed (switch
S1 and S2). The fault-detection circuit tests for shorted
connections to VDD or GND on the T+ and T- inputs,
as well as looking for an open thermocouple condi-
tion. Bits 0, 1, and 2 of the internal (cold junction)
temperature data are normally low. Bit 2 goes high to
indicate a thermocouple short to VDD, bit 1 goes high
to indicate a thermocouple short to GND, and bit 0
goes high to indicate a thermocouple open circuit. If
any of these conditions exists, bit 0 of the cold-junction
compensated thermacouple temperature data, which
is normally low, also goes high to indicate that a fault
has occurred.
Table 1. Thermocouple Wire Connections and Nominal Sensitivities
TYPE T- WIRE T+ WIRE TEMP RANGE (°C) SENSITIVITY (µV/°C)
COLD-JUNCTION
SENSITIVITY (µV/°C)
(0NC TO +70NC)
KAlumel Chromel -270 to +1372 41.276
(0NC to +1000NC) 40.73
JConstantan Iron -210 to +1200 57.953
(0NC to +750NC) 52.136
NNisil Nicrosil -270 to +1300 36.256
(0NC to +1000NC) 27.171
RPlatinum Platinum/Rhodium -50 to +1768 10.506
(0NC to +1000NC) 6.158
SPlatinum Platinum/Rhodium -50 to +1768 9.587
(0NC to +1000NC) 6.181
TConstantan Copper -270 to +400 52.18
(0NC to +400NC) 41.56
EConstantan Chromel -270 to +1000 76.373
(0NC to +1000NC) 44.123
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
11Maxim Integrated
Powering the MAX31850/MAX31851
The MAX31850/MAX31851 can be powered by an
external supply on the VDD pin, or they can operate
in “parasite power” mode, which allows the device to
function without a local external supply. Parasite power
is useful for applications that require remote tempera-
ture sensing or those that are very space-constrained.
Figure 1 shows the device’s parasite-power control cir-
cuitry, which “steals” power from the 1-Wire bus through
DQ when the bus is high. The stolen charge powers the
device while the bus is high, and some of the charge is
stored on the internal parasite-power capacitor (CPP) to
provide power when the bus is low. When the device is
used in parasite-power mode, VDD must be connected
to ground.
In parasite-power mode, the 1-Wire bus and CPP can
provide sufficient current to the device for most opera-
tions as long as the specified timing and voltage require-
ments are met (see the DC Electrical Characteristics
and the 1-Wire Timing Characteristics tables). However,
when the device is performing temperature conversions,
the operating current can be as high as 1.5mA. This
current can cause an unacceptable voltage drop across
the weak 1-Wire pullup resistor and is more current than
can be supplied by CPP. To ensure that the device has
sufficient supply current, it is necessary to provide a
strong pullup on the 1-Wire bus whenever temperature
conversions are taking place. This can be accomplished
by using a MOSFET to pull the bus directly to the rail
as shown in Figure 1. The 1-Wire bus must be switched
to the strong pullup within 10Fs (max) after a Convert T
[44h] command is issued, and the bus must be held high
by the pullup for the duration of the conversion (tCONV).
No other activity can take place on the 1-Wire bus while
the pullup is enabled.
The device can also be powered by the conventional
method of connecting an external power supply to VDD,
as shown in Figure 2. The advantage of this method is
that the MOSFET pullup is not required, and the 1-Wire
bus is free to carry other traffic during the temperature
conversion period.
The use of parasite power is not recommended for tem-
peratures above 100NC because the device may not be
able to sustain communications due to the higher leak-
age currents that can exist at these temperatures. For
applications in which such temperatures are likely, it is
strongly recommended that the device be powered by
an external power supply.
Figure 1. Supplying the Parasite-Powered MAX31850/MAX31851 During Temperature Conversions
Figure 2. Powering the MAX31850/MAX31851 with an External Supply
µP
VPU
4.7k
VPU
1-Wire BUS TO OTHER 1-Wire DEVICES
MAX31850
MAX31851
GND DQ VDD
µP
VPU
4.7k
1-Wire BUS TO OTHER 1-Wire DEVICES
(EXTERNAL SUPPLY)VDD
MAX31850
MAX31851
GND DQ VDD
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
12Maxim Integrated
Figure 3. 64-Bit ROM Code
Figure 4. Memory Map
In some situations the bus master might not know whether
the devices on the bus are parasite powered or powered
by external supplies. The master needs this information
to determine if the strong bus pullup should be used dur-
ing temperature conversions. To get this information, the
master can issue a Skip ROM [CCh] command, followed
by a Read Power Supply [B4h] command, followed by a
read time slot. During the read time slot, parasite-pow-
ered devices pull the bus low, and externally powered
devices let the bus remain high. If the bus is pulled low,
the master knows that it must supply the strong pullup on
the 1-Wire bus during temperature conversions.
64-Bit ROM Code
Each device contains a unique 64-bit code stored in ROM
(Figure 3). The least significant 8 bits of the ROM code
contain the device’s 1-Wire family code, 3Bh. The next 48
bits contain a unique serial number. The most significant
8 bits contain a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) byte that
is calculated from the first 56 bits of the ROM code. See
the CRC Generation section for a detailed explanation
of the CRC bits. The 64-bit ROM code and associated
ROM function control logic allow the device to operate as
a 1-Wire device using the protocol detailed in the 1-Wire
Bus System section.
Scratchpad
The device’s scratchpad is organized as shown
in Figure 4. All memory commands are described
in detail in the MAX31850/MAX31851 Function
Commands section.
Byte 0 and byte 1 of Scratchpad contain the least sig-
nificant byte and the most significant byte of the thermo-
couple temperature register, respectively. Bytes 2 and 3
contain the LSB and MSB of the internal (cold-junction)
temperature value, as well as fault status. Byte 4 con-
tains the configuration information. Bytes 5, 6, and 7 are
reserved for internal use by the device and cannot be
overwritten; these bytes return all ones when read.
Byte 8 of Scratchpad is read-only and contains the CRC
code for bytes 0–7 of the scratchpad. The device gener-
ates this CRC using the method described in the CRC
Generation section.
MSb
8-BIT
CRC CODE 48-BIT SERIAL NUMBER
MSb MSbLSb
LSb
LSb
8-BIT FAMILY CODE
(3Bh)
MSbLSb
COLD-JUNCTION-COMPENSATED THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE LSB AND FAULT STATUS (00h)BYTE 0
COLD-JUNCTION-COMPENSATED THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE MSB (00h)BYTE 1
INTERNAL (COLD JUNCTION) TEMPERATURE AND FAULT STATUS LSB (00h)BYTE 2
INTERNAL (COLD JUNCTION) TEMPERATURE MSB (00h)BYTE 3
CONFIGURATION REGISTER*BYTE 4
RESERVED (FFh)BYTE 5
RESERVED (FFh)BYTE 6
RESERVED (FFh)BYTE 7
CRCBYTE 8
*THE LOWER 4 BITS (AD[3:0]) OF THE CONFIGURATION REGISTER ARE HARDWIRED THROUGH AD0–AD3.
SCRATCHPAD (POWER-UP STATE SHOWN IN PARENTHESES)
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
13Maxim Integrated
Configuration Register
Byte 4 of Scratchpad contains the configuration reg-
ister, which is organized as shown in Configuration
Register Format. The configuration register allows the
user to read the programmed value of the address pins.
The AD[3:0] bits report the pin-programmed location
information. Pins connected to DQ are reported with
logic 1, and pins connected to GND are reported as
logic 0. Pins connected to DQ or GND through a resis-
tor are valid logic 1s or logic 0s if the resistor is less
than 10kI. Unconnected or high-impedance ( > 10kI)
connections are indeterminate. Bits [7:4] are reserved
for internal use and cannot be overwritten; they return
a 1 when read.
Table 2. Temperature Data Format
Configuration Register Format
Note: Bits [3:0] are programmed through the four location programming address pins, AD[3:0]. Reading the configuration register
provides location information on up to 16 individual devices.
Table 3. Thermocouple Temperature Data
Format
Table 4. Internal (Cold-Junction)
Temperature Data Format
Cold-Junction-Compensated Thermocouple Temperature Data (Bytes 0 and 1)
BIT 76543210
LSByte (Scratchpad
Byte 0) 232221202-1 2-2 Reserved 1 = Fault
BIT 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
MSByte (Scratchpad
Byte 1) Sign 210 292827262524
Internal (Cold-Junction) Temperature Data (Bytes 2 and 3)
BIT 76543210
LSByte (Scratchpad
Byte 2) 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 Reserved 1 = Short
to VDD
1 = Short
to GND
1 = Open
Circuit
BIT 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
MSByte (Scratchpad
Byte 3) Sign 26252423222120
BIT 7 BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 BIT 0
AD3 AD2 AD1 AD0
TEMPERATURE
(NC)
DIGITAL OUTPUT
(D[31:18])
+1600.00 0110 0100 0000 00
+1000.00 0011 1110 1000 00
+100.75 0000 0110 0100 11
+25.00 0000 0001 1001 00
0.00 0000 0000 0000 00
-0.25 1111 1111 1111 11
-1.00 1111 1111 1111 00
-250.00 1111 0000 0110 00
TEMPERATURE
(NC)
DIGITAL OUTPUT
(D[15:4])
+127.0000 0111 1111 0000
+100.5625 0110 0100 1001
+25.0000 0001 1001 0000
0.0000 0000 0000 0000
-0.0625 1111 1111 1111
-1.0000 1111 1111 0000
-20.0000 1110 1100 0000
-55.0000 1100 1001 0000
Q? MD
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
14Maxim Integrated
CRC Generation
CRC bytes are provided as part of the device’s 64-bit
ROM code, in the 9th byte of Scratchpad. The ROM code
CRC is calculated from the first 56 bits of the ROM code
and is contained in the most significant byte of the ROM.
The scratchpad CRC is calculated from the data in the
scratchpad, and therefore changes when the data in it
associated scratchpad changes. The CRC provides the
bus master with a method of data validation when data is
read from the device. To verify that data has been read
correctly, the bus master must recalculate the CRC from
the received data and then compare this value to either
the ROM code CRC (for ROM reads) or to the scratch-
pad CRC (for scratchpad reads). If the calculated CRC
matches the read CRC, the data has been received
error-free. The comparison of CRC values and the deci-
sion to continue with an operation are determined entirely
by the bus master. There is no circuitry inside the device
that prevents a command sequence from proceeding if
the device CRC (ROM or scratchpad) does not match the
value generated by the bus master.
The equivalent polynomial function of the CRC (ROM or
scratchpad) is:
CRC = X8 + X5 + X4 + 1
The bus master can recalculate the CRC and compare it
to the CRC values from the device using the polynomial
generator shown in Figure 5. This circuit consists of a
shift register and XOR gates, and the shift register bits
are initialized to 0. Starting with the least significant bit
of the ROM code or the least significant bit of byte 0 in
the scratchpad, one bit at a time should shifted into the
shift register. After shifting in the 56th bit from the ROM
or the most significant bit of byte 7 from the scratchpad,
the polynomial generator contains the recalculated CRC.
Next, the 8-bit ROM code or scratchpad CRC from the
device must be shifted into the circuit. At this point, if the
recalculated CRC was correct, the shift register contains
all zeros. Additional information about the Maxim 1-Wire
CRC is available in Application Note 27: Understanding
and Using Cyclic Redundancy Checks with Maxim iBut-
ton® Products.
1-Wire Bus System
The 1-Wire bus system uses a single bus master to
control one or more slave devices. The MAX31850/
MAX31851 are always a slave. When there is only one
slave on the bus, the system is referred to as a single-
drop system; the system is multidrop if there are multiple
slaves on the bus. All data and commands are transmit-
ted least significant bit first over the 1-Wire bus.
The following discussion of the 1-Wire bus system is
broken down into three topics: hardware configuration,
transaction sequence, and 1-Wire signaling (signal types
and timing).
Hardware Configuration
The 1-Wire bus has by definition only a single data line.
Each device (master or slave) interfaces to the data line
by using an open-drain or three-state port. This allows
each device to “release” the data line when the device
is not transmitting data so the bus is available for use by
another device. The device’s 1-Wire port (DQ) is open
drain with an internal circuit equivalent to that shown in
Figure 6.
Figure 5. CRC Generator
iButton is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
1ST
STAGE
2ND
STAGE
3RD
STAGE
4TH
STAGE
7TH
STAGE
8TH
STAGE
6TH
STAGE
5TH
STAGE
X0X1X2X3X4
POLYNOMIAL = X8 + X5 + X4 + 1
INPUT DATA
X5X6X7X8
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
15Maxim Integrated
Figure 6. Hardware Configuration
The 1-Wire bus requires an external pullup resistor of
approximately 5kI; thus, the idle state for the 1-Wire bus
is high. If for any reason a transaction needs to be sus-
pended, the bus must be left in the idle state if the transac-
tion is to resume. Infinite recovery time can occur between
bits so long as the 1-Wire bus is in the inactive (high) state
during the recovery period. If the bus is held low for more
than 480Fs, all components on the bus are reset.
Transaction Sequence
The transaction sequence for accessing the device is as
follows:
1) Step 1: Initialization
2) Step 2: ROM Command (followed by any required
data exchange)
3) Step 3: MAX31850/MAX31851 Function Command
(followed by any required data exchange)
It is very important to follow this sequence every time the
device is accessed, as the device does not respond if
any steps in the sequence are missing or out of order. An
exception to this rule is the Search ROM [F0h] command.
After issuing this ROM command, the master must return
to step 1 in the sequence.
Initialization
All transactions on the 1-Wire bus begin with an initializa-
tion sequence. The initialization sequence consists of a
reset pulse transmitted by the bus master followed by
presence pulse(s) transmitted by the slave(s). The pres-
ence pulse lets the bus master know that slave devices
(such as the MAX31850/MAX31851) are on the bus and
are ready to operate. Timing for the reset and presence
pulses is detailed in the 1-Wire Signaling section.
ROM Commands
After the bus master has detected a presence pulse, it
can issue a ROM command. These commands operate
on the unique 64-bit ROM codes of each slave device
and allow the master to single out a specific device if
many are present on the 1-Wire bus. These commands
also allow the master to determine how many and what
types of devices are present on the bus. There are four
ROM commands, and each command is 8 bits long. The
master device must issue an appropriate ROM command
before issuing a MAX31850/MAX31851 function com-
mand. Figure 7 shows a flowchart for operation of the
ROM commands.
Search ROM [F0h]
When a system is initially powered up, the master must
identify the ROM codes of all slave devices on the
bus, which allows the master to determine the number
of slaves and their device types. The master learns
the ROM codes through a process of elimination that
requires the master to perform a Search ROM cycle (i.e.,
Search ROM command followed by data exchange) as
many times as necessary to identify all the slave devices.
If there is only one slave on the bus, the simpler Read
ROM command can be used in place of the Search ROM
process. For a detailed explanation of the Search ROM
command procedure, refer to Application Note 937: Book
of iButton® Standards. After every Search ROM cycle,
the bus master must return to step 1 (initialization) in the
transaction sequence.
Rx
4.7k
5µA
TYP
VPU
BUS MASTER
OPEN-DRAIN
PORT PIN 100 MOSFET
Tx
Rx
Tx
DQ
MAX31850/MAX31851 1-Wire PORT
Rx = RECEIVE
Tx = TRANSMIT
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
16Maxim Integrated
Read ROM [33h]
This command can be used only when there is one slave
on the bus. It allows the bus master to read the slave’s
64-bit ROM code without using the Search ROM com-
mand procedure. If this command is used when there is
more than one slave present on the bus, a data collision
occurs when all the slaves attempt to respond at the
same time.
Match ROM [55h]
The Match ROM command followed by a 64-bit ROM
code sequence allows the bus master to address a
specific slave device on a multidrop or single-drop bus.
Only the slave that exactly matches the 64-bit ROM code
sequence responds to the function command issued by
the master; all other slaves on the bus wait for a reset
pulse.
Skip ROM [CCh]
The master can use this command to address all devices
on the bus simultaneously without sending out any ROM
code information. For example, the master can make all
devices on the bus perform simultaneous temperature
conversions by issuing a Skip ROM command followed
by a Convert T [44h] function command.
Note that the Read Scratchpad command can follow the
Skip ROM command only if there is a single slave device
on the bus. In this case, time is saved by allowing the
master to read from the slave without sending the device’s
64-bit ROM code. A Skip ROM command followed by a
Read Scratchpad command causes a data collision on
the bus if there is more than one slave because multiple
devices attempt to transmit data simultaneously.
MAX31850/MAX31851 Function Commands
After the bus master has used a ROM command
to address the MAX31850/MAX31851 with which it
wishes to communicate, the master can issue one of
the MAX31850/MAX31851 function commands. These
commands allow the master to read from the device’s
scratchpad memories, initiate temperature conversions,
and determine the power-supply mode. The MAX31850/
MAX31851 function commands are summarized in
Table 5 and illustrated by the flowchart in Figure 8.
Convert T [44h]
This command initiates a single thermocouple tempera-
ture conversion, which consists of measuring the internal
(cold junction) temperature, measuring the thermocouple
temperature, and detecting any faults. Following the con-
version, the resulting cold-junction-compensated thermo-
couple data, internal temperature data, and fault status
are stored in the two 2-byte temperature registers in
the scratchpad memory, and the MAX31850/MAX31851
returns to its low-power idle state. If the device is being
used in parasite-power mode, within 10Fs (max) after this
command is issued the master must enable a strong pul-
lup on the 1-Wire bus for the duration of the conversion
(tCONV) as described in the Powering the MAX31850/
MAX31851 section. If the device is powered by an exter-
nal supply, the master can issue read time slots after the
Convert T command and the device responds by trans-
mitting 0 while the temperature conversion is in progress
and 1 when the conversion is done. In parasite-power
mode, this notification technique cannot be used because
the bus is pulled high by the strong pullup during the
conversion.
Table 5. MAX31850/MAX31851 Function Command Set
Note 1: For parasite-powered devices, the master must enable a strong pullup on the 1-Wire bus during temperature conversions.
No other bus activity can take place during this time.
Note 2: The master can interrupt the transmission of data at any time by issuing a reset.
Note 3: During the read time slot, parasite-powered devices pull the DQ bus low, and externally powered units let the bus remain
high.
COMMAND DESCRIPTION PROTOCOL 1-Wire BUS ACTIVITY AFTER COMMAND IS
ISSUED
Convert T
(Note 1) Initiates temperature conversion. 44h The device transmits conversion status to master
(not applicable for parasite-powered devices).
Read Scratchpad
(Note 2)
Reads the 9-byte scratchpad
including the CRC byte. BEh The device transmits up to 9 data bytes to master.
The 9th byte is the CRC byte.
Read Power Supply
(Note 3)
Signals the device’s power-supply
mode to the master. B4h The device transmits supply status to the master.
55" Fun CCn MHTDH SEARCH 5MP RDM? RDM/ RDM? x m BTTu MATCH? x W BTTT MATCH? T 63 BTTzia MATCH? 4’
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
17Maxim Integrated
Figure 7. ROM Commands Flowchart
F0h
SEARCH
ROM?
N
BIT 0
MATCH?
BIT 0
MATCH?
CCh
SKIP
ROM?
N
55h
MATCH
ROM?
N
NN
33h
READ
ROM?
N
YY Y
Y
Y
MASTER Tx
BIT 0
DEVICE Tx
FAMILY CODE
1 BYTE
MASTER Tx
FUNCTION COMMAND
DEVICE Tx
SERIAL NUMBER
6 BYTES
DEVICE Tx
CRC BYTE
MASTER Tx
ROM COMMAND
DEVICE Tx
PRESENCE PULSE
MASTER Tx
RESET PULSE
INITIALIZATION
SEQUENCE
DEVICE Tx BIT 0
DEVICE Tx BIT 0
MASTER Tx BIT 0
MASTER Tx
BIT 63
DEVICE Tx BIT 63
DEVICE Tx BIT 63
MASTER Tx BIT 63
BIT 1
MATCH?
BIT 1
MATCH?
NN
BIT 63
MATCH?
BIT 63
MATCH?
NN
Y Y
Y Y
MASTER Tx
BIT 1
DEVICE Tx BIT 1
DEVICE Tx BIT 1
MASTER Tx BIT 1
Y
HE. V, CDNVERTWG IEMPEWUHEV Comm T/ B4" READ POWER SUPPLY’ 44h BEn READ SCRATCHPAW HAVEE BYTES BEEN REAL/z
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
18Maxim Integrated
Figure 8. MAX31850/MAX31851 Function Commands Flowchart
44h
CONVERT T?
Y
N
PARASITE
POWER?
MASTER Tx
FUNCTION COMMAND
DEVICE BEGINS
CONVERSION
MASTER Rx
“1s”
MASTER Rx
“0s”
YN
MASTER ENABLES
STRONG PULLUP ON DQ
DEVICE CONVERTS
TEMPERATURE
MASTER DISABLES
STRONG PULLUP
DEVICE
CONVERTING
TEMPERATURE?
Y
N
MASTER Rx
“0s”
MASTER Rx
“1s”
YN
Y
MASTER Rx DATA BYTE
FROM SCRATCHPAD
RETURN TO INITIALIZATION SEQUENCE
FOR NEXT TRANSACTION
MASTER Rx
SCRATCHPAD CRC BYTE
Y
BEh
READ
SCRATCHPAD?
Y
B4h
READ
POWER SUPPLY?
PARASITE
POWER?
NN
Y
N
N
MASTER Tx
RESET?
HAVE 8 BYTES
BEEN READ?
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
19Maxim Integrated
Read Scratchpad [BEh]
This command allows the master to read the contents of
Scratchpad. The data transfer starts with the least signifi-
cant bit of byte 0 and continues through the scratchpad
until the 9th byte (byte 8, CRC) is read. The master can
issue a reset to terminate reading at any time if only part
of the scratchpad data is needed. The CRC is computed
while data is read from bytes 0–7, and is shifted out as
byte 8.
Read Power Supply [B4h]
The master device issues this command followed by a read
time slot to determine if any devices on the bus are using
parasite power. During the read time slot, parasite-powered
devices pull the bus low, and externally powered devices
do not pull the bus low. See the Powering the MAX31850/
MAX31851 section for more information.
Building a Cross-Reference Table
The procedure in Figure 9 uses the Search ROM com-
mand to find all MAX31850/MAX31851s on the 1-Wire bus
(16 maximum) and then reads each configuration register
to match the ROM IDs to the hardwired addresses.
1-Wire Signaling
The device uses a strict 1-Wire communication protocol
to ensure data integrity. Several signal types are defined
by this protocol: reset pulse, presence pulse, write-zero,
write-one, read-zero, and read-one. The bus master
initiates all these signals except the presence pulse. All
MAX31850/MAX31851s on the bus are slaves.
Initialization Procedure:
Reset and Presence Pulses
All communication with the device begins with an initial-
ization sequence that consists of a reset pulse from the
master followed by a presence pulse from the device.
This is illustrated in Figure 10. When the device sends the
presence pulse in response to the reset, it is indicating
to the master that it is on the bus and ready to operate.
During the initialization sequence, the bus master trans-
mits (Tx) the reset pulse by pulling the 1-Wire bus low for
480Fs (min). The bus master then releases the bus and
goes into receive mode (Rx). When the bus is released,
the 5kI pullup resistor pulls the 1-Wire bus high. When
the device detects this rising edge, it waits 15Fs to 60Fs
Figure 9. Building a Cross-Reference Table
SEARCH ALL
ROM IDs ON BUS
AND
STORE ROM IDs
(F0h COMMAND)
NMAX IS THE NUMBER
OF ROM IDs FOUND
DONE
BUILDING CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE
USING ROM IDs AND 4-BIT ADDRESSES
READ SCRATCHPAD
(USE AD3−AD0 FROM
CONFIG REGISTER)
MASTER Tx
NEXT ROM ID
INCREMENT COUNTER
N = N + 1 N > NMAX?
N
Y
MATCH ROM ID TO
ADDRESS AND ADD TO
CROSS-REFERENCE
TABLE
ROM ID(0) 0000
ROM ID AD3−AD0
CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE
NOTE: TEMPERATURE SENSORS ARE ADDRESSED
BY ROM ID, NOT BY BINARY ADDRESS.
ROM ID(1) 0001
ROM ID(2) 0010
ROM ID(3) 0011
ROM ID(12) 1100
ROM ID(13) 1101
ROM ID(14) 1110
ROM ID(15) 1111
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
20Maxim Integrated
and then transmits a presence pulse by pulling the
1-Wire bus low for 60Fs to 240Fs.
Read/Write Time Slots
The bus master writes data to the device during write
time slots and reads data from the device during read
time slots. One bit of data is transmitted over the 1-Wire
bus per time slot.
Write Time Slots
There are two types of write time slots: write-one time
slots and write-zero time slots. The bus master uses a
write-one time slot to write a logic 1 to the slave and a
write-zero time slot to write a logic 0 to the slave. All write
time slots must have a 60Fs (min) duration with a 1Fs
(min) recovery time between individual write slots. Both
types of write time slots are initiated by the master pulling
the 1-Wire bus low (Figure 11).
To generate a write-one time slot, after pulling the 1-Wire
bus low, the bus master must release the 1-Wire bus
within 15Fs. When the bus is released, the 5kI pullup
resistor pulls the bus high. To generate a write-zero time
slot, after pulling the 1-Wire bus low, the bus master must
continue to hold the bus low for the duration of the time
slot (at least 60Fs).
The slave samples the 1-Wire bus during a window that
lasts from 15Fs to 60Fs after the master initiates the write
time slot. If the bus is high during the sampling window,
a 1 is written to the slave. If the line is low, a 0 is written
to the device.
Read Time Slots
The slave can only transmit data to the master when
the master issues read time slots. Therefore, the master
must generate read time slots immediately after issuing
a Read Scratchpad [BEh] command or Read Power
Supply [B4h] command, so that the device can provide
the requested data. In addition, the master can gener-
ate read time slots after issuing a Convert T [44h] com-
mand to verify the operation status as explained in the
MAX31850/MAX31851 Function Commands section.
All read time slots must be 60Fs (min) in duration with a
1Fs (min) recovery time between slots. A read time slot is
initiated by the master device pulling the 1-Wire bus low
for a minimum of 1Fs (tINIT) and then releasing the bus
(Figure 11). After the master initiates the read time slot,
the slave begins transmitting a 1 or 0 on bus. The slave
transmits a 1 by leaving the bus high and transmits a 0
by pulling the bus low. When transmitting a 0, the slave
releases the bus by the end of the time slot, and the
pullup resistor pulls the bus back to its high idle state.
Output data from the slave is valid for 15Fs after the fall-
ing edge that initiated the read time slot. Therefore, the
master must release the bus and then sample the bus
state within 15Fs from the start of the slot.
Figure 12 illustrates that the sum of tINIT, tRC, and the
master sample window must be less than 15Fs for a read
time slot. tRC is the rise time due to the resistive and
capacitive characteristics of the bus. Figure 13 shows
that system timing margin is maximized by keeping tINIT
and tRC as short as possible and by locating the master
sample time during read time slots towards the end of
the 15Fs period.
Figure 10. Initialization Timing
VPU
1-Wire BUS
MASTER Tx RESET PULSE
480µs MINIMUM
MASTER Rx
480µs MINIMUM
MAX31850/MAX31851 Tx PRESENCE PULSE
60µs TO 240µs
MAX31850/MAX31851 WAITS
15µs TO 60µs
GND
BUS MASTER PULLING LOW MAX31850/MAX31851 PULLING LOW RESISTOR PULLUP
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
21Maxim Integrated
Figure 11. Read/Write Time Slot Timing Diagram
Figure 12. Detailed Master Read-One Timing
VPU
1-Wire BUS
START
OF SLOT
START
OF SLOT
60µs < Tx “0” < 120µs
1µs < tREC <
1µs < tREC <
> 1µs
> 1µs
MASTER SAMPLES MASTER SAMPLES
> 1µs
15µs 15µs 30µs
MASTER WRITE-ZERO SLOT
MAX31850/MAX31851 SAMPLES
MIN MAXTYP
MAX31850/MAX31851 SAMPLES
MIN MAXTYP
MASTER WRITE-ONE SLOT
MASTER READ-ZERO SLOT MASTER READ-ONE SLOT
GND
VPU
1-Wire BUS
GND
15µs 45µs 15µs
15µs 15µs 30µs
BUS MASTER PULLING LOW MAX31850/MAX31851PULLING LOW RESISTOR PULLUP
VIH OF MASTER
MASTER SAMPLES
VPU
1-Wire BUS
GND
15µs
tINIT > 1µs tRC
BUS MASTER PULLING LOW RESISTOR PULLUP
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
22Maxim Integrated
Operation Example
Table 6 shows an operation example in which there are
multiple devices on the bus using parasite power. The
bus master initiates a temperature conversion in a spe-
cific MAX31850/MAX31851 and then reads Scratchpad
and recalculates the CRC to verify the data.
Figure 13. Recommended Master Read-One Timing
Table 6. Operation Example
MASTER
MODE DATA (LSB FIRST) COMMENTS
Tx Reset Master issues reset pulse.
Rx Presence Devices respond with presence pulse.
Tx F0h Master issues Search ROM command
Tx Reset Master issues reset pulse.
Rx Presence Devices respond with presence pulse.
Tx 55h Master issues Match ROM command for desired address
Tx 64-bit ROM code Master sends device ROM code.
Tx 44h Master issues Convert T command.
Tx DQ line held high by
strong pullup Master applies strong pullup to DQ for the duration of the conversion (tCONV).
Tx Reset Master issues reset pulse.
Rx Presence Devices respond with presence pulse.
Tx 55h Master issues Match ROM command.
Tx 64-bit ROM code Master sends device ROM code.
Tx BEh Master issues Read Scratchpad command.
Rx 9 data bytes
Master reads entire scratchpad including CRC. The master then recalculates the CRC of the
first 8 data bytes from the scratchpad and compares the calculated CRC with the read CRC
(byte 9). If they match, the master continues; if not, the read operation is repeated.
VPU
VIH OF MASTER
tINIT =
SMALL
tRC =
SMALL
MASTER SAMPLES
15µs
1-Wire BUS
GND
BUS MASTER PULLING LOW RESISTOR PULLUP
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
23Maxim Integrated
Figure 14. Address Programming Diagram—VDD Powered Figure 15. Address Programming Diagram—Parasite Powered
Applications Information
Open and Shorted Thermocouple Detection
The LSB of Byte 0 in Scratchpad is normally low and
goes high if the thermocouple input is open or shorted
to ground or VDD. Bits 0, 1, and 2 of Byte 2 are normally
low. When bit 2 (SCV) is high, it indicates a thermocouple
short to VDD. When bit 1 (SCG) is high, it indicates a
thermocouple short to ground. When bit 0 (OC) is high, it
indicates a thermocouple open circuit.
Noise Considerations
Because of the small signal levels involved, thermocouple
temperature measurement is susceptible to power supply
coupled noise. The effects of power-supply noise can be
minimized by placing a 0.1FF ceramic bypass capacitor
close to the VDD pin of the device and to GND.
The input amplifier is a low-noise amplifier designed
to enable high-precision input sensing. Keep the
thermocouple and connecting wires away from electrical
noise sources.
It is strongly recommended to add a 10nF ceramic surface-
mount differential capacitor, placed across the T+ and
T- pins, in order to filter noise on the thermocouple lines.
MAX31850
MAX31851
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
DQ
LOCATION 0
AD0 = GND
AD1 = GND
AD2 = GND
AD3 = GND
VDD
VDD
1-Wire BUS
NOTE: AD3–AD0 CANNOT BE LEFT UNCONNECTED; EACH PIN MUST BE
CONNECTED TO EITHER VDD OR GND.
GND
MAX31850
MAX31851
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
DQ
LOCATION 1
AD0 = VDD
AD1 = GND
AD2 = GND
AD3 = GND
VDD
VDD
GND
MAX31850
MAX31851
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
DQ
LOCATION 2
AD0 = GND
AD1 = VDD
AD2 = GND
AD3 = GND
VDD
VDD
GND
MAX31850
MAX31851
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
DQ
LOCATION 15
AD0 = VDD
AD1 = VDD
AD2 = VDD
AD3 = VDD
VDD
VDD
GND
MAX31850
MAX31851
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
DQ
LOCATION 0
AD0 = GND
AD1 = GND
AD2 = GND
AD3 = GND
VDD
1-Wire BUS
NOTE: AD3–AD0 CANNOT BE LEFT UNCONNECTED; EACH PIN MUST BE
CONNECTED TO EITHER DQ OR GND.
GND
MAX31850
MAX31851
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
DQ
LOCATION 1
AD0 = DQ
AD1 = GND
AD2 = GND
AD3 = GND
VDD
GND
MAX31850
MAX31851
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
DQ
LOCATION 2
AD0 = GND
AD1 = DQ
AD2 = GND
AD3 = GND
VDD
GND
MAX31850
MAX31851
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
DQ
LOCATION 15
AD0 = DQ
AD1 = DQ
AD2 = DQ
AD3 = DQ
VDD
GND
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
24Maxim Integrated
Ordering Information
Note: All devices are specified over the -40°C to +125°C operating temperature range.
+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
T = Tape and reel.
*EP = Exposed pad.
Package Information
For the latest package outline information and land patterns (footprints), go to www.maximintegrated.com/packages. Note that a
“+”, “#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status only. Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but the
drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status.
Thermal Considerations
Self-heating degrades the temperature measurement
accuracy of the MAX31850/MAX31851 in some
applications. The magnitude of the temperature errors
depends on the thermal conductivity of the MAX31850/
MAX31851 package, the mounting technique, and the
effects of airflow. Use a large ground plane to improve the
temperature measurement accuracy of the MAX31850/
MAX31851.
The accuracy of a thermocouple system can also be
improved by following these precautions:
• Usethelargestwirepossiblethatdoesnotshuntheat
away from the measurement area.
• If a small wire is required, use it only in the region
of the measurement, and use extension wire for the
region with no temperature gradient.
• Avoid mechanical stress and vibration, which could
strain the wires.
• When using long thermocouple wires, use a twisted
pair extension wire.
• Avoidsteeptemperaturegradients.
• Trytousethethermocouplewirewellwithinitstem-
perature rating.
• Usethepropersheathingmaterialinhostileenviron-
ments to protect the thermocouple wire.
• Useextensionwireonlyatlowtemperaturesandonly
in regions of small gradients.
• Keepaneventlogandacontinuousrecordofthermo-
couple resistance.
PART THERMOCOUPLE TYPE MEASURED TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
MAX31850KATB+ K -270NC to +1372NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850KATB+T K -270NC to +1372NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850JATB+ J -210NC to +1200NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850JATB+T J -210NC to +1200NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850NATB+ N -270NC to +1300NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850NATB+T N -270NC to +1300NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850TATB+ T -270NC to +400NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850TATB+T T -270NC to +400NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850EATB+ E -270NC to +1000NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31850EATB+T E -270NC to +1000NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31851SATB+ S -270NC to +1768NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31851SATB+T S -270NC to +1768NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31851RATB+ R -270NC to +1768NC10 TDFN-EP*
MAX31851RATB+T R -270NC to +1768NC10 TDFN-EP*
PACKAGE TYPE PACKAGE CODE OUTLINE NO. LAND PATTERN NO.
10 TDFN-EP T1034N+1 21-0268 90-0247
MAX31850/MAX31851
Cold-Junction Compensated, 1-Wire
Thermocouple-to-Digital Converters
Maxim Integrated cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim Integrated product. No circuit patent
licenses are implied. Maxim Integrated reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. The parametric values (min and
max limits) shown in the Electrical Characteristics table are guaranteed. Other parametric values quoted in this data sheet are provided for guidance.
Maxim Integrated 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134 USA 1-408-601-1000 25
© 2015 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. Maxim Integrated and the Maxim Integrated logo are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE DESCRIPTION PAGES
CHANGED
0 6/13 Initial release
1 8/13 Clarify that MAX31850 can be used for R- and S- thermocouples 1, 4, 11,
16, 24
2 1/15 Revised the Benefits and Features section 1

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